Charles Goodyear



Haumea (EL61)/Sun conjunction

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


>>Charles Goodyear (December 28, 1800 - July 1, 1860) was the first white American to vulcanize rubber, a process which he discovered in 1839 and patented on June 15, 1844. Although Goodyear is often credited with its invention, modern evidence has proven that the Mesoamericans used stabilized rubber for balls and other objects as early as 1600 BC.
Goodyear discovered the vulcanization process accidentally after five years of searching for a more stable rubber.

Early life
Charles Goodyear was born in New Haven, Connecticut on December 28, 1800. He was the son of Amasa Goodyear, and the oldest of six children. His father was quite proud of being a descendant of Stephen Goodyear, one of the founders of the colony of New Haven in 1638 .
Amasa Goodyear owned a little farm on the neck of land in New Haven which is now known as Oyster Point, and it was here that Charles spent the earliest years of his life. When Charles was quite young, his father secured an interest in a patent for the manufacture of ivory buttons, and looking for a convenient location for a small mill, settled at Naugatuck, Connecticut, where he made use of the valuable water power that is there. Aside from his manufacturing, the elder Goodyear ran a farm, and between farming and manufacturing Charles Goodyear kept busy.
In 1814, Charles left his home and went to Philadelphia to learn the hardware business. He worked industriously until he was twenty-one years old, and then, returning to Connecticut, entered into partnership in his father's business in Naugatuck, where they manufactured not only ivory and metal buttons, but a variety of agricultural implements.

Marriage and early career


In August of 1824 he was united in marriage with Clarissa Beecher, a woman of supposedly remarkable strength of character and kindness of disposition; and one of great assistance to the impulsive inventor. Two years later the family moved to Philadelphia, and there Charles Goodyear opened a hardware store. His specialties were the valuable agricultural implements that his firm had been manufacturing, and after the first distrust of domestically-made goods had worn away for all agricultural implements were imported from England at that time he found himself heading a successful business.
This continued to increase until it seemed that he was to be a wealthy man. Between 1829 and 1830 he broke down in health, being troubled with dyspepsia. At the same time came the failure of a number of business houses that seriously embarrassed his firm. They struggled on, however, for some time, but were finally obliged to fail. The ten years that followed were full of bitter struggles and trials. Under the law that existed he was imprisoned time after time for debts, even while he was trying to perfect inventions that could pay off his indebtedness.

Rubber research

Early business
Between the years 1831 and 1832, Goodyear heard about gum elastic and very carefully examined every article that appeared in the newspapers relative to this new material. The Roxbury Rubber Company, of Boston, had been for some time experimenting with the gum, and believed it had found means for manufacturing goods from it. It had a large plant and was sending its goods all over the country. It was some of Roxbury's goods that first attracted Goodyear's attention. Soon after this, Goodyear visited New York, and his attention went to life preservers, and it struck him that the tube used for inflation was not very effective nor well-made. Therefore, upon returning to Philadelphia, he made some tubes and brought them back to New York and showed them to the manager of the Roxbury Rubber Company.
This gentleman was pleased with the ingenuity that Goodyear had shown in manufacturing the tubes. He confessed to Goodyear that the business was on the verge of ruin, and that his products had to be tested for a year before it could be determined if they were perfect or not. To their surprise, thousands of dollars worth of goods that they had determined to be of good quality were being returned, the gum having rotted, making them useless. Goodyear at once made up his mind to experiment on this gum and see if he could overcome the problems with these rubber products.
However, when he returned to Philadelphia, a creditor had him arrested and thrown into prison. While there, he tried his first experiments with India rubber. The gum was inexpensive then, and by heating it and working it in his hands, he managed to incorporate in it a certain amount of magnesia which produced a beautiful white compound and appeared to take away the stickiness.
He thought he had discovered the secret, and through the kindness of friends was enabled to improve his invention in New Haven. The first thing that he made was shoes, and he used his own house for a grinding, calendering and vulcanizing, with the help of his wife and children. His compound at this time consisted of India rubber, lampblack, and magnesia, the whole dissolved in turpentine and spread upon the flannel cloth which served as the lining for the shoes. It was not long, however, before he discovered that the gum, even treated this way, became sticky. His creditors, completely discouraged, decided that he would not be allowed to go further in his research.
Goodyear, however, had no mind to stop here in his experiments. Selling his furniture and placing his family in a quiet boarding place, he went to New York and in an attic, helped by a friendly druggist, continued his experiments. His next step was to compound the rubber with magnesia and then boil it in quicklime and water. This appeared to solve the problem. At once it was noticed abroad that he had treated India rubber to lose its stickiness, and he received international acclamation. He seemed on the high road to success, until one day he noticed that a drop of weak acid, falling on the cloth, neutralized the alkali and immediately caused the rubber to become soft again. This proved to him that his process was not a successful one. He therefore continued experimenting, and after preparing his mixtures in his attic in New York, would walk three miles to a mill in Greenwich Village to try various experiments.
In the line of these, he discovered that rubber dipped in nitric acid formed a surface cure, and he made many products with this acid cure which were held in high regard, and he even received a letter of commendation from Andrew Jackson.
Exposure to harsh chemicals, such as nitric acid and lead oxide, adversely affected his health, and once nearly suffocated by gas generated in his laboratory. Goodyear survived, but the resulting fever came close to taking his life.
Together with a new business partner, he built up a factory and began to make clothing, life preservers, rubber shoes, and a great variety of rubber goods. They also had a large factory with special machinery, built at Staten Island, where he moved his family and again had a home of his own. Just about this time, when everything looked bright, the panic of 1837 came and swept away the entire fortune of his associate and left Goodyear penniless.
His next move was to go to Boston, where he became acquainted with J. Haskins, of the Roxbury Rubber Company. Goodyear found him to be a good friend, who lent him money and stood by him when no one would have anything to do with the visionary inventor. A man named Mr. Chaffee was also exceedingly kind and ever ready to lend a listening ear to his plans, and to also assist him in a pecuniary way. About this time it occurred to Mr. Chaffee that much of the trouble that they had experienced in working India rubber might come from the solvent that was used. He therefore invented a huge machine for doing the mixing by mechanical means. The goods that were made in this way were beautiful to look at, and it appeared, as it had before, that all difficulties were overcome.
Goodyear discovered a new method for making rubber shoes and received a patent which he sold to the Providence Company in Rhode Island. However, a method had not yet been found to process rubber so that it would withstand hot and cold temperatures and acids, and so the rubber goods were constantly growing sticky, decomposing and being returned to the manufacturers.

The vulcanization process
In 1838, Goodyear met Nathaniel Hayward in Woburn, Massachusetts, where Hayward was running a factory. Some time after this Goodyear himself moved to Woburn, all the time continuing his experiments. He was very much interested in Hayward's sulfur experiments for drying rubber. Hayward told Goodyear that he had used sulfur in rubber manufacturing.
The circumstances attending the discovery of his celebrated process is thus described by Mr. Goodyear himself in his book, "Gum Elastic and Its Varieties, with a detailed account of its application and uses and of the Discovery of Vulcanization." Perhaps showing humility, or following scientific convention, Goodyear used only third person references when speaking about himself. Or perhaps he did not want people to think he was bragging and wanted their truthful opinion.
Some say that Goodyear tried the experiment with a similar material over an open flame, and saw that the gum elastic was charred, but on the edge of the charred areas were portions that were not charred, but were instead perfectly cured. Other sources claim that Goodyear accidentally spilled the rubber mixture on a hot stove. The key discovery was that heating natural rubber and sulfur created vulcanized rubber. This process was eventually refined to become the vulcanizing process.
The inventor himself admitted that the discovery of the vulcanizing process was not the direct result of the scientific method, but claims that it was not accidental. Rather it was the result of application and observation.
Now that Goodyear was sure that he had the key to the intricate puzzle that he had worked over for so many years, he began at once to tell his friends about it and to try to secure capital, but they had listened so many times that his efforts were futile. For a number of years he struggled and experimented and worked along in a small way, his family suffering with himself the pangs of the extremest poverty. At last he went to New York and showed some of his samples to William Ryder, who, with his brother Emory, at once appreciated the value of the discovery and started in to manufacturing. Even here, Goodyear's bad luck seemed to follow him, for the Ryder Bros. had failed and it was impossible to continue the business.
He had, however, started a small factory at Springfield, Massachusetts, and his brother-in-law, Mr. De Forest, who was a wealthy woolen manufacturer, took Ryder's place. The work of making the invention practical was continued. In 1844 the process was sufficiently perfected that Goodyear felt it safe to take out a patent. The factory at Springfield was run by his brothers, Nelson and Henry. In 1843 Henry started one in Naugatuck, and in 1844 introduced mechanical mixing of the mixture in place of the use of solvents.
-------------------------------------

>>Vulcanization refers to a specific curing process of rubber involving high heat and the addition of sulfur or other equivalent curatives. It is a chemical process in which polymer molecules are linked to other polymer molecules by atomic bridges composed of sulfur atoms or carbon to carbon bonds. The end result is that the springy rubber molecules become cross-linked to a greater or lesser extent. This makes the bulk material harder, much more durable and also more resistant to chemical attack. It also makes the surface of the material smoother and prevents it from sticking to metal or plastic chemical catalysts.
This heavily cross-linked polymer has strong covalent bonds, with strong forces between the chains, and is therefore an insoluble and infusible, thermosetting polymer.
The process is named after Vulcan, Roman god of fire.
A vast array of products are made with vulcanized rubber including hockey pucks, tires, shoe soles, hoses and many more.

Later developments
Whatever the true history, the discovery of the rubber-sulfur reaction revolutionized the use and applications of rubber, and changed the face of the industrial world.
Up to that time, the only way to seal a small gap between moving machine parts, such as between a piston and its cylinder in a steam engine, was to use leather soaked in oil. This was acceptable up to moderate pressures, but above a certain point, machine designers had to compromise between the extra friction generated by packing the leather more tightly and greater leakage of precious steam.
Vulcanized rubber offered the ideal solution. With vulcanized rubber, engineers had a material which could be shaped and formed to precise shapes and dimensions, and which would accept moderate to large deformations under load and recover quickly to its original dimensions once the load was removed. These, combined with good durability and lack of stickiness, are the critical requirements for an effective sealing material.
Further experiments in the processing and compounding of rubber were carried out, mostly in the UK by Hancock and his colleagues. These led to a more repeatable and stable process.
In 1905, however, George Oenslager discovered that a derivative of aniline called thiocarbanilide was able to accelerate the action of sulfur on the rubber, leading to much shorter cure times and reduced energy consumption. This work, though much less well-known, is almost as fundamental to the development of the rubber industry as that of Goodyear in discovering the sulfur cure. Accelerators made the cure process much more reliable and more repeatable. One year after his discovery, Oenslager had found hundreds of potential applications for his additive.
Thus, the science of accelerators and retarders was born. An accelerator speeds up the cure reaction, while a retarder delays it. In the subsequent century, various chemists have developed other accelerators, and so-called ultra-accelerators, that make the reaction very fast, and are used to make most modern rubber goods.

Devulcanization
The rubber industry has been researching the devulcanization of rubber for many years. The main difficulty in recycling rubber has been devulcanizing the rubber without compromising its desirable properties. The process of devulcanization involves treating rubber in granular form with heat and/or softening agents in order to restore its elastic qualities, in order to enable the rubber to be reused. Several experimental processes have achieved varying degrees of success in the laboratory, but have been less successful when scaled up to commercial production levels. Also, different processes result in different levels of devulcanization: for example, the use of a very fine granulate and a process that produces surface devulcanization will yield a product with some of the desired qualities of unrecycled rubber.
The rubber recycling process begins with the collection and shredding of discarded tires. This reduces the rubber to a granular material, and all the steel and reinforcing fibers are removed. After a secondary grinding, the resulting rubber powder is ready for product remanufacture. However, the manufacturing applications that can utilize this inert material are restricted to those which do not require its vulcanization.
In the rubber recycling process, devulcanization begins with the delinking of the sulfur molecules from the rubber molecules, thereby facilitating the formation of new cross-linkages. Two main rubber recycling processes have been developed: the modified oil process and the water-oil process. With each of these processes, oil and a reclaiming agent are added to the reclaimed rubber powder, which is subjected to high temperature and pressure for a long period (5-12 hours) in special equipment and also requires extensive mechanical post-processing. The reclaimed rubber from these processes has altered properties and is unsuitable for use in many products, including tires. Typically, these various devulcanization processes have failed to result in significant devulcanization, have failed to achieve consistent quality, or have been prohibitively expensive.
In the mid-1990s, researchers at the Guangzhou Research Institute for the Utilization of Reusable Resources in China patented a method for the reclamation and devulcanizing of recycled rubber. Their technology, known as the AMR Process, is claimed to produce a new polymer with consistent properties that are close to those of natural and synthetic rubber, and at a significantly lower potential cost.
The AMR Process exploits the molecular characteristics of vulcanized rubber powder in conjunction with the use of an activator, a modifier and an accelerator reacting homogeneously with particles of rubber. The chemical reaction that occurs in the mixing process facilitates the delinking of the sulfur molecules, thereby enabling the characteristics of either natural or synthetic rubber to be recreated. A mixture of chemical additives is added to the recycled rubber powder in a mixer for approximately five minutes, after which the powder passes through a cooling process and is then ready for packaging. The proponents of the process also claim that the process releases no toxins, by-products or contaminants. The reactivated rubber may then be compounded and processed to meet specific requirements.
Currently, Landstar Rubber, which holds the North American license for the AMR Process, has built a rubber reprocessing plant and research/quality control lab in Columbus, Ohio. The plant performs production runs on a demonstration basis or at small commercial levels. The recycled rubber from the Ohio plant is currently being tested by an independent lab to establish its physical and chemical properties.
Whether or not the AMR Process succeeds, the market for new raw rubber or equivalent remains enormous, with North America alone using over 10 billion pounds (circa 4.5 million tons) every year. The auto industry consumes approximately 79% of new rubber and 57% of synthetic rubber. To date, recycled rubber has not been used as a replacement for new or synthetic rubber in significant quantities, largely because the desired properties have not been achieved. Used tires are the most visible of the waste products made from rubber; it is estimated that North America alone generates approximately 300 million waste tires annually, with over half being added to stockpiles that are already huge. It is estimated that less than 10% of waste rubber is reused in any kind of new product. Furthermore, the United States, the European Union, Eastern Europe, Latin America, Japan and the Middle East collectively produce about one billion tires annually, with estimated accumulations of three billion in Europe and six billion in North America.
Recently a new method of devulcanization was developed by Coral GROUP, in Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine. This method of devulcanization, includes impregnation of rubber with special solvent with additives of catalysts and reagents. In this process rubber is restructured, sulfuric "bridges are torn up, sulfur chemically connects, and rubber becomes plastic, suitable for molding. All that remains is to add 2-4% of sulfur, and new rubber products can be made. The quality of the obtained rubber compound is not worse than obtained from the initial materials, i.e. it is completely possible to make new automobile tires or other rubber products from the devulcanized rubber.<<

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vulcanized_rubber

Legacy

In the year 1852 Goodyear went to Europe, a trip that he had long planned, and saw Thomas Hancock, then in the employ of Charles Macintosh & Company. Hancock claimed to have invented vulcanization independently, and received a British patent, initiated in 1843, but finalized in 1844. In 1855, in the last of three patent disputes with fellow British rubber pioneer, Stephen Moulton, Hancock's patent was challenged with the claim that Hancock had copied Goodyear. Goodyear attended the trial. If Hancock lost, Goodyear stood to have his own British patent application granted, allowing him to claim royalties from both Hancock and Moulton. Both had examined Goodyear's vulcanized rubber in 1842, but several chemists testified that it would not have been possible to determine how it was made by studying it. Hancock prevailed.
In 1852 a French company (Aigle) was licensed by Mr. Goodyear to make shoes, and a great deal of interest was felt in the new business. In 1855 the French emperor gave to Charles Goodyear the Grand Medal of Honor and decorated him with the Cross of the Legion of Honor in recognition of his services as a public benefactor. Later, the French courts subsequently set aside his French patents on the ground of the importation of vulcanized goods from America by licenses under the United States patents.
In 1898, almost four decades after his death, the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company was founded and named after Goodyear by Frank Seiberling.
On February 8, 1976, he was among 6 selected for induction into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.
In his hometown of Woburn, Massachusetts, there is an elementary school named after him.<<

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Goodyear
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Assuming noon in New Haven (Lat41n18 - Lon72w56)

Using RIYAL 3.1


Astrological Setting (Tropical - Placidus)




RIYAL  Sun December 28 1800  UT 16h51m44s  Lat41n18  Lon72w56   SORT ALL    

       Planet      Longit.     Latit.    Declin.   Const.
      SB60     =  1Ge33 r   14n32   34n41   Per   
      Uranus   =  1Li52      0n45    0s04     Vir          
      RD215    =  2Sc00      1n59   10s19   Vir    
      Jupiter =  2Le14 r    0n31   20n12   Cnc        
      Pluto    =  2Pi39     12s24   22s04     Aqr     
      GZ32     =  2Cp39      3n07   20s20   Sgr     
      Pholus   =  3Ar03     23s21   20s08   Cet     
      XA255    =  3Ta30 r   12s01    1n22   Cet    
      96PW     =  3Vi38 r    6n28   16n12    Leo    
      Logos    =  3Cp43      1n42   21s43    Sgr    
      Ceto     =    3Pi43      6n05    4s28     Aqr   
      Chiron   =  3Sa45      3n30   17s29    Sco     
      LE31     =  3Ca55 r    6s53   16n31   Gem    
      Pelion   =  4Sc14       9n08    4s20     Vir     
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      PA44     =  4Ge23 r    2s03   19n02   Tau    
      Bienor   =  4Pi34       0n37      9s16   Aqr     
      PB112    =  4Sc34     10s02   22s29   Hya    
      PJ30     =  4Ca34 r    1n36   24n59    Gem    
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      (Midheav)  =  6Cp21      0n00   23s19   Sgr                                 
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      Orcus    =  7Li13     20s16   21s23   Crv   
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      UR163    = 11Le20 r    0s10   17n14   Cnc     
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      Varuna   = 15Li25     16n54    9n31    Vir    
      VU2      = 15Vi31     15s12    8s19      Crt      
      TC302    = 15Sa43     29s16   51s44   Ara    
      FZ173    = 16Ta01 r    9n22   25n36   Ari    
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      GB32     = 17Ge42 r   14s13    8n44   Ori    
      Hylonome = 17Pi51      0n25    4s25   Aqr    
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      BL41     = 18Sa04      5s23   28s18   Oph     
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      RZ215    = 18Vi30 r    4s21    0n33     Leo    
      Neptune  = 18Sc39      1n44   15s43   Lib       
      TY364    = 19Ge05 r   22s02    1n03   Ori     
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      TX300    = 19Ca27 r   14n55   36n48   Lyn    
      Apogee   = 19Ge50      4n32   27n36   Tau                                 
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      UJ438    = 20Sc35      2s05   19s55    Lib     
      Okyrhoe  = 21Cp03     12n42    9s15   Aql      
      FY9       = 21Sa07       2s13   25s23    Oph     
      KX14     = 21Cp13      0n04   21s43   Sgr     
      CE10     = 21Li29     29s07   35s01   Cen     
      RR43     = 21Le44 r   25n00   37n41   LMi    
      WL7      = 22Cp05     10s03   31s34   Sgr     
      MW12     = 22Ar18 r    8s36    0n42    Cet   
      WN188    = 22Aq19     10s41   24s09   Aqr     
      SA278    = 22Cp32     13n22    8s23   Aql    
      Saturn   = 23Le31 r    1n14   14n51   Leo     
      CF119    = 23Pi33     16n01   12n07   Peg    
      CR105    = 24Aq25      7s50   20s46   Aqr    
      CO104    = 24Sa34      2s56   26s18   Sgr   
      BU48     = 24Ca35 r    4s14   17n04   Gem     
      OM67     = 24Vi41 r   12s09    9s02    Crt    
      CY118    = 25Ar01 r   18s49    7s50   Cet    
      QB243    = 25Aq09      0s01   13s10   Aqr     
      UX25     = 25Le09 r   16s57    2s51    Hya    
      AW197    = 25Cp09      0n24   20s44   Sgr    
      Chaos   = 25Li36      4n42    5s32      Vir    
      GV9      = 26Cp05     16n32    4s41   Aql     
      Quaoar   = 27Pi13      1n04    0s08   Psc     
      XX143    = 27Vi25      6n33    7n02    Vir     
      Deucalion= 27Aq31      0s21   12s41   Aqr    
      Crantor  = 28Ta01 r   10s57    9n04    Tau     
      Radamantu= 28Sc05      9s39   29s09   Lib    
      TO66     = 28Ge40 r   27n48   51n16   Aur     
      XR190    = 28Sa46     18n47    4s41   Ser     
      VQ94     = 28Pi50     56s49   50s33    Eri    
      OX3      = 28Sa56      0n17   23s11    Sgr    
      OO67     = 29Li03     18n48    6n28    Vir    
      Eris     = 29Cp41     43s25   61s51    Ind
___________________________

Focused Minor Planets


Haumea (EL61) =  6 Cp 58
Sun       =  6 Cp 49
Asbolus =  5 Ca 34 r

Orcus    =  7 Li 13          Square
RZ214    =  6 Li 58

QB1        = 7 Le 23 r       Quincunx
Pylenor   = 6 Ge 27 r
Elatus     = 5 Sc 20          Sextile
_____________________


Typhon   = 12 Sa 56
Mercury  = 14 Sa 18  
Chariklo = 12 Ge 12 r

Venus    = 12 Aq 31      Sextile
Ixion       = 14 Aq 48
Huya       =  11 Aq 57
TD10      =  12 Li 05
Node      =  14 Ar 51 r     Trine      
UR163   =  11 Le 20 r
OO67     =  29 Li 03        Semisquare
_____________________


OO67      = 29 Li 03

Mercury  = 14 Sa 18      Semisquare
Typhon    = 12 Sa 56

Eris        =  29 Cp 41       Square

XR190   =  28 Sa 46       Sextile
OX3       =  28 Sa 56
Deucalion= 27 Aq 31      Trine
TO66     =  28 Ge 40 r
Crantor  =  28 Ta 01 r       Quincunx

Rhadamanthus = 28 Sc 05  Semisextile
_______________________


Quaoar   = 27 Pi 13
XX143    =  27 Vi 25
Venus     = 12 Aq 31       Semisquare
Huya        =  11 Aq 57

GV9         =  26 Cp 05      Sextile
Crantor    =  28 Ta 01 r

XR190     = 28 Sa 46       Square
OX3         = 28 Sa 56

Deucalion = 27 Aq 31      Semisextile

Rhadamanthus = 28 Sc 05    Trine
_______________________


Huya      = 11 Aq 57
Venus   = 12 Aq 31
UR163   = 11 Le 20 r
Mars      = 11 Ta 04          Square

Quaoar =  27 Pi 13         Semisquare

MS4       =  11 Pi 15         Semisextile

TD10      = 12 Li 05          Trine
Chariklo = 12 Ge 12 r
________________________


Logos    =   3 Cp 43

Jupiter =   2 Le 14 r      Quincunx

Uranus  =  1 Li 52          Square

Pluto      =  2 Pi 39         Sextile
RD215   =   2 Sc 00
Neptune = 18 Sc 39     Semisquare
_______________________


SA278   =  22 Cp 32

Saturn   =  23 Le 31 r     Quincunx
RR43     =   21 Le 44 r

MW12   =   22 Ar 18 r      Square

TL66     =     8 Sa 49       Semisquare
_______________________


UX25    =   25 Le 09 r
Saturn  =   23 Le 31 r
CR105  =  24 Aq 25

AW197  =  25 Cp 09       Quincunx
GV9       =  26 Cp 05

Chaos  =  25 Li 36        Sextile
_______________________


TY364    = 19 Ge 05 r

Neptune  = 18 Sc 39     Quincunx

Sedna    = 18 Pi 18         Square
Amycus  = 19 Pi 14

TX300    = 19 Ca 27 r     Semisextile

VS2        =   5 Le 09 r      Semisquare
___________________________________
___________________________________

Astrological Setting (Sidereal - Fagan/Bradley)


RIYAL  Sun December 28 1800  UT 16h51m44s  Lat41n18  Lon72w56   SORT ALL    
      WL7      =  0Cp07     
      MW12     =  0Ar20 r   
      WN188    =  0Aq22    
      SA278    =  0Cp35     
      Saturn   =  1Le33 r   
      CF119    =  1Pi35     
      CR105    =  2Aq28      
      CO104    =  2Sa36      
      BU48     =  2Ca38 r    
      OM67     =  2Vi43 r   
      CY118    =  3Ar04 r   
      QB243    =  3Aq11    
      UX25     =  3Le11 r   
      AW197    =  3Cp12      
      Chaos    =  3Li39      
      GV9      =  4Cp07     
      Quaoar   =  5Pi15     
      XX143    =  5Vi28      
      Deucalion=  5Aq33      
      Crantor  =  6Ta03 r   
      Radamantu=  6Sc07     
      TO66     =  6Ge42 r  
      XR190    =  6Sa48     
      VQ94     =  6Pi52     
      OX3      =  6Sa59      
      OO67     =  7Li06     
      Eris    =  7Cp43     
      SB60     =  9Ta35 r   
      Uranus   =  9Vi55      
      RD215    = 10Li02      
      Jupiter  = 10Ca16 r    
      Pluto    = 10Aq41     
      GZ32     = 10Sa41     
      Pholus   = 11Pi06     
      XA255    = 11Ar32 r   
      96PW     = 11Le41 r    
      Logos    = 11Sa46      
      Ceto     = 11Aq46      
      Chiron   = 11Sc47      
      LE31     = 11Ge57 r   
      Pelion   = 12Li16      
      RG33     = 12Ge22 r  
      PA44     = 12Ta26 r    
      Bienor   = 12Aq36      
      PB112    = 12Li36    
      PJ30     = 12Ge37 r    
      XZ255    = 12Ar45 r    
      Vertex   = 13Vi05                                                         
      VS2      = 13Ca11 r    
      KF77     = 13Ta12 r   
      Elatus   = 13Li22      
      Asbolus  = 13Ge36 r   
      (Midheav)  = 14Sa23             
      Pylenor  = 14Ta30 r   
      Sun      = 14Sa52     
      EL61     = 15Sa00     
      RZ214    = 15Vi01      
      DH5      = 15Vi06    
      Thereus  = 15Ca07 r
      Orcus    = 15Vi15     
      QB1      = 15Ca25 r   
      QF6      = 15Vi26     
      RP120    = 15Li34     
      Echeclus = 16Li16     
      Teharonhi= 16Ta26 r   
      RL43     = 16Ca29 r   
      Cyllarus = 16Vi46      
      TL66     = 16Sc52     
      Nessus   = 16Pi59      
      CO1      = 17Ta38 r  
      (Moon)     = 18Ta15    
      DA62     = 18Pi20     
      AZ84     = 18Le39 r   
      CC22     = 18Pi58    
      Mars     = 19Ar07      
      MS4      = 19Aq17     
      UR163    = 19Ca22 r   
      Huya     = 19Cp59      
      HB57     = 20Ta05 r   
      TD10     = 20Vi07     
      (Ascend)   = 20Pi09                
      Chariklo = 20Ta15 r   
      Venus    = 20Cp33     
      Typhon   = 20Sc59    
      Mercury  = 22Sc21     
      Ixion    = 22Cp50     
      Node     = 22Pi53 r   
      RM43     = 23Sc03      
      Varuna   = 23Vi27     
      VU2      = 23Le34     
      TC302    = 23Sc46     
      FZ173    = 24Ar03 r    
      OP32     = 24Ar14 r   
      FP185    = 24Ar20 r  
      CZ118    = 24Ta45 r   
      QD112    = 25Ge00 r  
      RN43     = 25Ar09 r   
      YQ179    = 25Aq13     
      GQ21     = 25Ar28 r    
      GB32     = 25Ta44 r   
      Hylonome = 25Aq53      
      GM137    = 25Sa55      
      BL41     = 26Sc06    
      FZ53     = 26Sa07     
      PN34     = 26Le20 r   
      Sedna    = 26Aq20      
      RZ215    = 26Le32 r    
      Neptune  = 26Li41     
      TY364    = 27Ta07 r   
      Amycus   = 27Aq16      
      TX300    = 27Ge29 r   
      Apogee   = 27Ta52          
      SQ73     = 28Ge21 r   
      VR130    = 28Le35 r    
      UJ438    = 28Li37     
      Okyrhoe  = 29Sa05     
      FY9      = 29Sc10      
      KX14     = 29Sa15      
      CE10     = 29Vi32     
      RR43     = 29Ca47 r
_________________________

Focused Minor Planets


Haumea (EL61) =   15 Sa 00
Sun      =   14 Sa 52
Asbolus =  13 Ge 36 r

Orcus   =  15 Vi 15        Square
RZ214   =  15 Vi 01
QB1       =  15 Ca 25 r    Quincunx
Pylenor  =  14 Ta 30 r

Elatus    =   13 Li 22        Sextile
______________________


Typhon    =  20 Sc 59
Mercury  = 22 Sc 21
Chariklo  =  20 Ta 15 r

Venus    =  20 Cp 33     Sextile
Ixion      =   22 Cp 50
Huya       =  19 Cp 59
TD10      =  20 Vi 07
Node      =  22 Pi 53 r     Trine      
UR163   =  19 Ca 22 r

OO67     =   7 Li 06         Semisquare
________________________


OO67     =   7 Li 06

Mercury  =  22 Sc 21     Semisquare
Typhon   = 20 Sc 59

Eris      =     7 Cp 43        Square

XR190 =     6 Sa 48        Sextile
OX3      =    6 Sa 59

Deucalion = 5 Aq 33       Trine
TO66    =    6 Ge 42 r

Crantor =    6 Ta 03 r       Quincunx

Rhadamanthus =  6 Sc 07   Semisextile
______________________


Quaoar  =   5 Pi 15
XX143    =   5 Vi 28

Venus    = 20 Cp 33       Semisquare
Huya       = 19 Cp 59
GV9        =   4 Cp 07       Sextile
Crantor   =   6 Ta 03 r

XR190    =   6 Sa 48       Square
OX3        =   6 Sa 59

Deucalion =  5 Aq 33      Semisextile

Rhadamanthus = 6 Sc 07    Trine
_______________________


Huya     =  19 Cp 59
Venus  =  20 Cp 33
UR163  = 19 Ca 22 r

Mars     = 19 Ar 07        Square

Quaoar =  5 Pi 15         Semisquare

MS4      = 19 Aq 17       Semisextile

TD10     = 20 Vi 07        Trine
Chariklo = 20 Ta 15 r
_______________________


Logos    =   11 Sa 46
Jupiter =  10 Ca 16 r   Quincunx

Uranus =     9 Vi 55      Square

Pluto     =  10 Aq 41      Sextile
RD215  =   10 Li 02
Neptune = 26 Li 41      Semisquare
_______________________


SA278   =   0 Cp 35

Saturn  =   1 Le 33 r     Quincunx
RR43     = 29 Ca 47 r

MW12   =    0 Ar 20 r     Square

TL66     =  16 Sc 52      Semisquare
_______________________


UX25     =  3 Le 11 r
Saturn   = 1 Le 33 r
CR105   = 2 Aq 28

AW197   = 3 Cp 12       Quincunx
GV9        = 4 Cp 07

Chaos   = 3 Li 39         Sextile
_______________________


TY364    =  27 Ta 07 r

Neptune  =  26 Li 41     Quincunx

Sedna     = 26 Aq 20      Square
Amycus   = 27 Aq 16
TX300     = 27 Ge 29 r   Semisextile

VS2         = 13 Ca 11 r    Semisquare

_____________________________

Tentatively, suggested additional keywords for Haumea (2003 EL61):

- Thermic/Overheating/Friction processes
________________________________________________________

Posted to Centaurs (YahooGroups) on October 19, 2008

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__________________________________________