George Orwell

EL61/Sun/Moon/Neptune conjunction

"The Terror behind"

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

>>Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 21 January 1950) was an English journalist, political essayist and novelist who wrote under the pseudonym George Orwell.
His writing is marked by concise descriptions of social conditions and events and a contempt for all types of authority. He is most famous for two novels critical of totalitarianism, Nineteen Eighty-Four and Animal Farm (a satire of Stalinism).


Early life
Eric Arthur Blair was born on 25 June 1903 to British parents in Motihari, Bengal Presidency, British India. His father, Richard Walmesley Blair, worked in the Opium Department of the Civil Service. His mother, Ida Mabel Blair (née Limouzin), had a French father who was involved in speculative ventures in Burma where she grew up. She took her son Eric to England when he was one year old and apart from a three-month visit to England in 1907 Richard Blair did not enter his son's life until Eric was nine years old. Eric had two sisters; Marjorie, five years older, and Avril, five years younger. His great-grandfather Charles Blair had been a wealthy plantation owner in Jamaica and his grandfather a clergyman. Although the gentility passed down the generations, the prosperity did not. Blair described his family as "lower-upper-middle class".

At six, Eric attended the Anglican parish school in Henley-on-Thames until he was eleven. Blair's mother wanted him to have a good public school education, but the family finances were against this unless he could obtain a scholarship. Her brother Charles Limouzin, who lived on the South Coast, recommended St Cyprian's School, Eastbourne, Sussex. The headmaster undertook to help Blair to win a scholarship, and made a private financial arrangement which allowed Blair's parents to pay only half the normal fees. At the school, Blair formed a life-long friendship with Cyril Connolly (future editor of Horizon magazine, who later published many of his essays). Years later, Blair mordantly recalled the school in the essay "Such, Such Were the Joys". However, while there he wrote two poems that were published in his local newspaper, came second to Connolly in the Harrow History Prize, had his work praised by the school's external examiner, and earned scholarships to Wellington and Eton.
After a term at Wellington College, Blair transferred to Eton College, where he was a King's Scholar (19171921). His tutor was A. S. F. Gow, fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge who remained a source of advice later in his career. Blair was briefly taught French by Aldous Huxley who spent a short interlude teaching at Eton, but there was no contact between them outside the class-room. Later, Blair wrote of having been relatively happy at Eton, because it allowed students much independence. His academic performance reports indicate that he ceased serious work there, and various explanations have been offered for this. His parents could not afford to send him to Oxbridge without another scholarship, and they concluded from the poor results that he would not be able to obtain one. Instead, it was decided that Blair should join the Indian Imperial Police. To do this it was necessary to pass an entrance examination. His father had retired to Southwold, Suffolk by this time and Blair was enrolled at a "crammer" there called "Craighurst" where he brushed up on his classics, English and History. Blair passed the exam coming seventh out of twenty-seven.

Blair's grandmother lived at Moulmein, and with family connections in the area, his choice of posting was Burma. In October 1922, he sailed on board SS Herefordshire via the Suez Canal and Ceylon to join the Indian Imperial Police in Burma. A month later he arrived at Rangoon and made the journey to Mandalay the site of the police training school. After a short posting at Maymyo Burma's principal hill station he was posted to the remote area of Mayaungma at the beginning of 1924. His imperial policeman's life gave him considerable responsibilities for a young man of his age while his contemporaries were still at university in England. He was then posted to Twante where as sub-divisional officer he was responsible for the security of some 200,000 people. At the end of 1924 he was promoted to Assistant District Superintendent and posted to Syriam, which was closer to Rangoon and in September 1925 went to Insein the home of the second-largest jail in Burma. He moved to Moulmein where his grandmother lived in April 1926 and at the end of that year went on to Katha. There he contracted Dengue fever in 1927. He was entitled to leave in England in that year and in view of his illness was allowed to go home in July. While on leave in England in 1927, he reappraised his life and resigned from the Indian Imperial Police with the intention of becoming a writer. The Burma police experience yielded the novel Burmese Days (1934) and the essays "A Hanging" (1931) and "Shooting an Elephant" (1936).

The early writings
In England, he settled back in the family home at Southwold, renewing acquaintance with local friends and attending an Old Etonian dinner. He visited his old tutor Gow at Cambridge for advice on becoming a writer, and as a result he decided to move to London. Ruth Pitter, a family acquaintance, helped him find lodgings and by the end of 1927 he had moved into rooms in Portobello Road (a blue plaque commemorates his residence there). Pitter took a vague interest in his writing as he set out to collect literary material on a social class as different from his own as were the natives of Burma. Following the precedent of Jack London, whom he admired, he started his exploratory expeditions to the poorer parts of London. On his first outing he set out to Limehouse Causeway (spending his first night in a common lodging house, possibly George Levy's 'kip'. For a while he "went native" (in his own country), dressing like a tramp, making no concessions to middle class mores and expectations, and he recorded his experiences of the low life for use in "The Spike", his first published essay, and the latter half of his first book, Down and Out in Paris and London (1933).
In spring of 1928, he moved to Paris, where the comparatively low cost of living and bohemian lifestyle offered an attraction for many aspiring writers. His Aunt Nellie Limouzin also lived there and gave him social and, if necessary, financial support. He worked on novels, but only Burmese Days survives from that activity. More successful as a journalist, he published articles in Monde (not to be confused with Le Monde), G. K.'s Weekly and Le Progres Civique (founded by Le Cartel des Gauches). He fell seriously ill in March 1929 and shortly afterwards had all his money stolen from the lodging house. Whether through necessity or simply to collect material, he undertook menial jobs like dishwashing in a fashionable hotel on the rue de Rivoli providing experiences to be used in Down and Out in Paris and London . In August 1929 he sent a copy of "The Spike" to The Adelphi magazine in London and it was accepted for publication. In December, after a year and three quarters in Paris, he returned to England.
He returned to England, to his parents' house in Southwold, where he worked on Burmese Days, and from where he frequently forayed into tramping to research the life of society's poorest people. Meanwhile, he regularly contributed to John Middleton Murry's New Adelphi magazine.
He completed Down and Out in Paris and London in 1932; it was published early the next year, while he taught at Frays College, near Hayes, Middlesex. He took the job to escape dire poverty; during this period, he obtained the literary agent services of Leonard Moore. Just before publication of Down and Out in Paris and London, Eric Arthur Blair adopted the nom de plume George Orwell. In a letter to Moore (dated 15 November) he left the choice of pseudonym to him and to publisher Victor Gollancz. Four days later, he wrote to Moore, suggesting these pseudonyms: P. S. Burton (a tramping name), Kenneth Miles, George Orwell, and H. Lewis Allways.[7]
As a writer, George Orwell drew upon his life as a teacher and on life in Southwold for the novel A Clergyman's Daughter (1935), written in 1934 at his parents' house after sickness and parental urging forced his foregoing the teaching life. From late 1934 to early 1936 he was a part-time assistant in the Booklover's Corner, a second-hand bookshop in Hampstead. Having led a lonely, solitary existence, he wanted to enjoy the company of young writers; Hampstead was an intellectual's town with many houses offering cheap bedsit rooms. Those experiences germinated into the novel Keep the Aspidistra Flying (1936).

The Road to Wigan Pier
In early 1936, Victor Gollancz, of the Left Book Club, commissioned George Orwell to write an account of working class poverty in economically depressed northern England. His account, The Road to Wigan Pier was published in 1937. Orwell did his leg-and-homework as a social reporter: he gained entry to many houses in Wigan to see how people lived; took systematic notes of housing conditions and wages earned; and spent days in the local public library consulting public health records and reports on mine working conditions.
The first half of The Road to Wigan Pier documents his social investigations of Lancashire and Yorkshire. It begins with an evocative description of working life in the coal mines. The second half is a long essay of his upbringing, and the development of his political conscience, including a denunciation of the Left's irresponsible elements. Publisher Gollancz feared the second half would offend Left Book Club readers; he inserted a mollifying preface to the book while Orwell was in Spain.
Soon after researching the The Road to Wigan Pier, George Orwell married Eileen O'Shaughnessy.

The Spanish Civil War, and Catalonia
In December 1936, Orwell went to Spain as a fighter for the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War that was provoked by Francisco Franco's Fascist uprising. In conversation with Philip Mairet, editor of New English Weekly, Orwell said: 'This fascism ... somebody's got to stop it'. To Orwell, liberty and democracy went together, guaranteeing, among other things, the freedom of the artist; the present capitalist civilization was corrupt, but fascism would be morally calamitous.
John McNair (18871968), quotes him: 'He then said that this [writing a book] was quite secondary, and [that] his main reason for coming was to fight against Fascism'. Orwell went alone; his wife, Eileen, joined him later. He joined the Independent Labour Party contingent, which consisted of some twenty-five Britons who had joined the militia of the Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM - Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista), a revolutionary communist party. The POUM, and the radical wing of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT (Catalonia's dominant left-wing force), believed General Franco could be defeated only if the Republic's working class overthrew capitalism a position at fundamental odds with the Spanish Communist Party, and its allies, which (backed by Soviet arms and aid) argued for a coalition with the bourgeois parties to defeat the fascist Nationalists. After July 1936 there was profound social revolution in Catalonia, Aragón, and wherever the CNT was strong, an egalitarian spirit sympathetically described in Homage to Catalonia.
Fortuitously, Orwell joined the POUM, rather than the Communist International Brigades, but his experiences especially his and Eileen's narrow escape during a Communist purge in Barcelona in June 1937 much increased his sympathies for the POUM, making him a life-long anti-Stalinist and firm believer in what he termed Democratic Socialism, socialism with free debate and free elections.
In combat, Orwell was shot through the neck and nearly killed. At first, he feared his voice would be reduced to a permanent, painful whisper; this was not to be so, though the injury affected his voice, giving it "a strange, compelling quietness". He wrote in Homage to Catalonia that people frequently told him he was lucky to survive, but that he personally thought "it would be even luckier not to be hit at all".
George and Eileen Orwell then lived in Morocco for half a year so he could recover from his wound. In that time, he wrote Coming Up for Air, his last novel before World War II. It is the most English of his novels; alarums of war mingle with images of idyllic Thames-side Edwardian childhood of protagonist George Bowling. The novel is pessimistic; industrialism and capitalism have killed the best of Old England, and there were great, new external threats. In homely terms, Bowling posits the totalitarian hypotheses of Borkenau, Orwell, Silone and Koestler: "Old Hitler's something different. So's Joe Stalin. They aren't like these chaps in the old days who crucified people and chopped their heads off and so forth, just for the fun of it ... They're something quite new something that's never been heard of before".

World War II and Animal Farm
After the Spanish ordeal, and writing about it, Orwell's formation ended; his finest writing, best essays, and great fame lay ahead. In 1940, Orwell closed his Wallington house, and he and Eileen moved to No. 18 Dorset Chambers, Chagford Street, in the genteel Marylebone neighbourhood near Regent's Park, central London, Orwell supporting himself as a freelance reviewer for the New English Weekly (mainly), Time and Tide, and the New Statesman. Soon after the war began, he joined the Home Guard (and was awarded the "British Campaign Medals/Defence Medal") attending Tom Wintringham's home guard school and championing Wintringham's socialist vision for the Home Guard.
In 1941, Orwell worked for BBC's Eastern Service, supervising Indian broadcasts meant to stimulate India's war participation against the approaching Japanese army. About being a propagandist, he wrote of feeling like "an orange that's been trodden on by a very dirty boot". Still, he devoted much effort to the opportunity of working closely with the likes of T. S. Eliot, E. M. Forster, Mulk Raj Anand, and William Empson; the war-time Ministry of Information, at Senate House, University of London, inspired the Ministry of Truth in the novel Nineteen Eighty-Four.
Orwell's BBC resignation followed a report confirming his fears about the broadcasts: few Indians listened. He wanted to become a war correspondent, and was impatient to begin working on Animal Farm. Despite the good salary, he resigned from BBC in September 1943, and in November became literary editor of the left-wing weekly magazine Tribune, then edited by Aneurin Bevan and Jon Kimche (Kimche had been Box to Orwell's Cox when they were half-time assistants at the Booklover's Corner book shop in Hampstead, 193435). Orwell was on staff until early 1945, writing the regular column "As I Please". Anthony Powell and Malcolm Muggeridge had returned from overseas to finish the war in London; the three regularly lunched together at either the Bodega, off the Strand, or the Bourgogne, in Soho, sometimes joined by Julian Symons (then seemingly true disciple to Orwell) and David Astor, editor-owner of The Observer.
In 1944, Orwell finished the anti-Stalinist allegory Animal Farm published (Britain, 17 August 1945, U.S., 26 August 1946) to critical and popular success. Harcourt Brace Editor Frank Morley went to Britain soon after the war to learn what currently interested readers, clerking a week or so at the Cambridge book shop Bowes and Bowes. The first day, customers continually requested a sold-out book the second impression of Animal Farm; on reading the shop's remaining copy, he went to London and bought the American publishing rights; the royalties were George Orwell's first, proper, adult income.
With Animal Farm at the printer's, with war's end in view, Orwell's desire to be in the thick of the action quickened. David Astor asked him to be the Observer war correspondent reporting the liberation of France and the early occupation of Germany; Orwell quit Tribune.
He and Astor were close; Astor is believed to be the model for the rich publisher in Keep the Aspidistra Flying; Orwell strongly influenced Astor's editorial policies. Astor died in 2001 and is buried in the grave beside Orwell's. Orwell never revealed his pen name, keeping his identity secret and thinking his work did not need a revealed author.

Nineteen Eighty-Four and final years
Orwell and his wife adopted a baby boy, Richard Horatio Blair, born in May 1944. Orwell was taken ill again in Cologne in spring 1945. While he was sick there, his wife died in Newcastle during an operation to remove a tumour. She had not told him about this operation due to concerns about the cost and the fact that she thought she would make a speedy recovery.
For the next four years Orwell mixed journalistic work mainly for the Tribune, the Observer and the Manchester Evening News, though he also contributed to many small-circulation political and literary magazines with writing his best-known work, Nineteen Eighty-Four, which was published in 1949. Originally, Orwell was undecided between titling the book The Last Man in Europe and Nineteen Eighty-Four but his publisher, Fredric Warburg, helped him choose. The title was not the year Orwell had initially intended. He first set his story in 1980, but, as the time taken to write the book dragged on (partly because of his illness), that was changed to 1982 and, later, to 1984.
He wrote much of the novel while living at Barnhill, a remote farmhouse on the island of Jura which lies in the Gulf stream off the west coast of Scotland. It was an abandoned farmhouse with outbuildings near to the northern end of the island, situated at the end of a five-mile (8 km), heavily rutted track from Ardlussa, where the laird, or landowner, Margaret Fletcher lived, and where the paved road, the only one on the island, came to an end.
In 1948, he co-edited a collection entitled British Pamphleteers with Reginald Reynolds.
In 1949, Orwell was approached by a friend, Celia Kirwan, who had just started working for a Foreign Office unit, the Information Research Department, which the Labour government had set up to publish anti-communist propaganda. He gave her a list of 37 writers and artists he considered to be unsuitable as IRD authors because of their pro-communist leanings. The list, not published until 2003, consists mainly of journalists (among them the editor of the New Statesman, Kingsley Martin) but also includes the actors Michael Redgrave and Charlie Chaplin. Orwell's motives for handing over the list are unclear, but the most likely explanation is the simplest: that he was helping a friend in a cause anti-Stalinism that they both supported. There is no indication that Orwell abandoned the democratic socialism that he consistently promoted in his later writings or that he believed the writers he named should be suppressed. Orwell's list was also accurate: the people on it had all made pro-Soviet or pro-communist public pronouncements. In fact, one of the people on the list, Peter Smollett, the head of the Soviet section in the Ministry of Information, was later (after the opening of KGB archives) proven to be a Soviet agent, recruited by Kim Philby, and "almost certainly the person on whose advice the publisher Jonathan Cape turned down Animal Farm as an unhealthily anti-Soviet text", although Orwell was unaware of this.
In October 1949, shortly before his death, he married Sonia Brownell.


Literary criticism
Throughout his life Orwell continually supported himself as a book reviewer, writing works so long and sophisticated they have had an influence on literary criticism. In the celebrated conclusion to his 1940 essay on Charles Dickens one seems to see Orwell himself:
"When one reads any strongly individual piece of writing, one has the impression of seeing a face somewhere behind the page. It is not necessarily the actual face of the writer. I feel this very strongly with Swift, with Defoe, with Fielding, Stendhal, Thackeray, Flaubert, though in several cases I do not know what these people looked like and do not want to know. What one sees is the face that the writer ought to have. Well, in the case of Dickens I see a face that is not quite the face of Dickens's photographs, though it resembles it. It is the face of a man of about forty, with a small beard and a high colour. He is laughing, with a touch of anger in his laughter, but no triumph, no malignity. It is the face of a man who is always fighting against something, but who fights in the open and is not frightened, the face of a man who is generously angry in other words, of a nineteenth-century liberal, a free intelligence, a type hated with equal hatred by all the smelly little orthodoxies which are now contending for our souls."

Rules for writers
In "Politics and the English Language," George Orwell provides six rules for writers:
Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print.
Never use a long word where a short one will do.
If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.
Never use the passive voice where you can use the active.
Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent.
Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous.

Political views
Orwell's political views shifted over time, but he was a man of the political left throughout his life as a writer. In his earlier days he occasionally described himself as a "Tory anarchist". His time in Burma made him a staunch opponent of imperialism, and his experience of poverty while researching Down and Out in Paris and London and The Road to Wigan Pier turned him into a socialist. "Every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic socialism, as I understand it," he wrote in 1946.
It was the Spanish Civil War that played the most important part in defining his socialism. Having witnessed the success of the anarcho-syndicalist communities, and the subsequent brutal suppression of the anarcho-syndicalists and other revolutionaries by the Soviet-backed Communists, Orwell returned from Catalonia a staunch anti-Stalinist and joined the Independent Labour Party.
At the time, like most other left-wingers in the United Kingdom, he was still opposed to rearmament against Nazi Germany but after the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact and the outbreak of the Second World War, he changed his mind. He left the ILP over its pacifism and adopted a political position of "revolutionary patriotism". He supported the war effort but detected (wrongly as it turned out) a mood that would lead to a revolutionary socialist movement among the British people. "We are in a strange period of history in which a revolutionary has to be a patriot and a patriot has to be a revolutionary," he wrote in Tribune, the Labour left's weekly, in December 1940.
By 1943, his thinking had moved on. He joined the staff of Tribune as literary editor, and from then until his death was a left-wing (though hardly orthodox) Labour-supporting democratic socialist. He canvassed for the Labour Party in the 1945 general election and was broadly supportive of its actions in office, though he was sharply critical of its timidity on certain key questions and despised the pro-Soviet stance of many Labour left-wingers.
Although he was never either a Trotskyist or an anarchist, he was strongly influenced by the Trotskyist and anarchist critiques of the Soviet regime and by the anarchists' emphasis on individual freedom. He wrote in The Road to Wigan Pier that 'I worked out an anarchistic theory that all government is evil, that the punishment always does more harm than the crime and the people can be trusted to behave decently if you will only let them alone.' In typical Orwellian style, he continues to deconstruct his own opinion as 'sentimental nonsense'. He continues 'it is always necessary to protect peaceful people from violence. In any state of society where crime can be profitable you have got to have a harsh criminal law and administer it ruthlessly'. Many of his closest friends in the mid-1940s were part of the small anarchist scene in London.
Orwell had little sympathy with Zionism and opposed the creation of the state of Israel. In 1945, Orwell wrote that "few English people realise that the Palestine issue is partly a colour issue and that an Indian nationalist, for example, would probably side with the Arabs".
While Orwell was concerned that the Palestinian Arabs be treated fairly, he was equally concerned with fairness to Jews in general: writing in the spring of 1945 a long essay titled "Antisemitism in Britain," for the "Contemporary Jewish Record." Antisemitism, Orwell warned, was "on the increase," and was "quite irrational and will not yield to arguments." He thought "the only useful approach" would be a psychological one, to discover "why" antisemites could "swallow such absurdities on one particular subject while remaining sane on others." (pp 332-341, As I Please: 1943-1945.) In his magnum opus, Nineteen Eighty-Four, he showed the Party enlisting antisemitic passions in the Two Minute Hates for Goldstein, their archetypal traitor.
Orwell was also a proponent of a federal socialist Europe, a position outlined in his 1947 essay 'Toward European Unity', which first appeared in Partisan Review.

During the majority of his career, Orwell was best known for his journalism, in essays, reviews, columns in newspapers and magazines and in his books of reportage: Down and Out in Paris and London (describing a period of poverty in these cities), The Road to Wigan Pier (describing the living conditions of the poor in northern England, and the class divide generally) and Homage to Catalonia. According to Newsweek, Orwell "was the finest journalist of his day and the foremost architect of the English essay since Hazlitt."
Modern readers are more often introduced to Orwell as a novelist, particularly through his enormously successful titles Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four. The former is often thought to reflect developments in the Soviet Union after the Russian Revolution; the latter, life under totalitarian rule. Elements in Nineteen Eighty-Four satirize "opium for the masses" found as central-character Winston Smith does (witness the newspapers filled with "sex, sport, and astrology" which the Ministry of Truth peddles to the proles). Nineteen Eighty-Four is often compared to Brave New World by Aldous Huxley; both are powerful dystopian novels warning of a future world filled with state control, the former was written later and considers perpetual war preparation in a nuclear age; the latter is more optimistic.


Nineteen Eighty-Four

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

>>Nineteen Eighty-Four (also titled 1984), by George Orwell (the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair), is a 1949 English novel about life in a fictional, future authoritarian regime as lived by Winston Smith, an intellectual worker at the Ministry of Truth. Winston is degraded and psychologically tortured after he is arrested by the Thought Police under the instruction of the totalitarian government of Oceania, in the year 1984.
The book has major significance for its vision of an all-observing government which uses constant surveillance and propaganda, both insidious and blatant, to control its citizens. The book had a substantial impact both in literature and on the perception of public surveillance, inspiring such terms as 'Big Brother' and 'Orwellian'.

George Orwell, who had "encapsulate[d] the thesis at the heart of his novel" in 1944, wrote most of Nineteen Eighty-Four on the island of Jura, Scotland during 19471948 while critically ill with tuberculosis. He sent the final typescript to his friends, Secker and Warburg, on 4 December 1948, who published the book on 8 June 1949.
Nineteen Eighty-Four has been translated to sixty-two languages. The novel's title, its terms, and its language (Newspeak), and its author's surname are bywords for personal privacy lost to national state security. The adjective "Orwellian" denotes many things. It can refer to totalitarian action or organization as well as governmental attempts to control or misuse information for the purposes of controlling, pacifying or even subjugating the population. Orwellian can also refer to governmental propagandizing by the misnaming of things. Hence the "Ministry of Peace" in the novel actually deals with war and the "Ministry of Love" actually tortures people. Since the novel's publication "Orwellian" has in fact become somewhat of a catch-all for any kind of governmental overreach or dishonesty and therefore has multiple meanings and applications. The phrase: Big Brother is Watching You specifically connotes pervasive, invasive surveillance but can also refer to attempts to over regulate or legislate societal behavior.
Although the novel has been banned or challenged in some countries, it is, along with Brave New World by Aldous Huxley, and Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, among the most famous literary representations of dystopia. In 2005, Time magazine listed it among the hundred best English-language novels published since 1923. The dystopian novel We by Yevgeny Zamyatin is largely considered to have been a primary influence for Nineteen Eighty-Four.

Ministry of Truth bureaucrat Winston Smith is the protagonist; although unitary, the story is three-fold. The first describes the world of 1984 as he perceives it; the second is his illicit romance with Julia and his intellectual rebellion from The Party; the third is his capture and imprisonment, interrogation, torture, and re-education in the Ministry of Love.

Oceania is a totalitarian state of omnipresent, two-way television surveillance; informants are everywhere; and Winston's romance with Julia is betrayed as a political transgression. Their imprisonment at the Ministry of Love (the most feared of the four ministries) features torture, brainwashing, and re-education in Room 101 (via the prisoner's worst fear). Those degradations re-educate them to love only Big Brother and The Party. Afterwards, disgusted by his love affair with Julia, Winston Smith surrenders his mind, body, and soul to Big Brother; like-wise Julia. On release, each admits having betrayed the other to survive, something they had vowed not to do; each is apathetic toward the other's betrayal.
The thematic likenesses between Nineteen Eighty-Four and Animal Farm are: the betrayed revolution; the person's subordination to the Party collective; the rigorously enforced class distinctions among Party members, i.e. the Inner Party, the Outer Party, the Proletariat; the Cult of Personality; concentration camps; Thought Police; compulsory, regimented, daily exercise; the youth leagues.
As in the Nazi and Stalinist regimes, propaganda is pervasive; Smith's job is rewriting historical documents to match the contemporaneous party line, the orthodoxy of which changes daily. He re-writes and re-prints newspaper articles (society's official records) to delete from the collective memory all people rendered unpersons by Party order.


The intellectual Winston Smith is a member of the Outer Party, lives in the ruins of London (the "chief city of Airstrip One", a province of Oceania), who grew up in the post-World War II United Kingdom, during the revolution and the civil war. As his parents disappeared in the civil war, the English Socialism Movement ("Ingsoc" in Newspeak), put him in an orphanage for training and employment in the Outer Party.
His squalid existence consists of living in a one-room apartment, eating a subsistence diet of black bread and synthetic meals washed down with Victory-brand gin. He is discontented, and keeps an illegal journal of dissenting, negative thoughts and opinions about The Party. If detected, it, and his eccentric behaviour, would result in torture and death by the Thought Police.
In his journal he explains thoughtcrime: Thoughtcrime does not entail death. Thoughtcrime IS death. The Thought Police have two-way telescreens (in the living quarters of every Party member and in every public area), hidden microphones, and anonymous informers to spy potential thought-criminals who might endanger The Party. Children are indoctrinated to informing; to spy and report suspected thought-criminals especially their parents.
Winston Smith is a bureaucrat in the Records Department of the Ministry of Truth, revising historical records to match The Party's contemporaneous, official version of the past. The revisionism is required so that the past reflect the shifts of the day in the Party's orthodoxy. Smith's job is perpetual; he re-writes the official record, re-touches official photographs, deleting people officially rendered as unpersons. The original or older document is dropped into a "memory hole" chute leading to an incinerator. Although he likes his work, especially the intellectual challenge of revising a complete historical record, he also is fascinated by the true past, and eagerly tries to learn more about that forbidden truth.
One day in the office, a woman surreptitiously hands him a note. She is "Julia", a dark-haired mechanic who repairs the Ministry of Truth's novel-writing machines. Before that day, he had felt deep loathing for her, based on his assumptions that she was a brainwashed, fanatically devoted member of the Party; particularly annoying to him is her red sash of renouncement of and scorn for sexual intercourse. His preconceptions vanish on reading her hand-printed note: "I love you". After that, they begin a clandestine romantic relationship, first meeting in the countryside and at a ruined belfry, then regularly in a rented room atop an antiques shop in the city's proletarian neighbourhood. The shop owner chats him up with facts about the pre-revolutionary past, sells him period artifacts, and rents him the room to meet Julia. The lovers believe their hiding place paradisiacal (the shop keeper having told them it has no telescreen) and think themselves alone and safe.
As their romance deepens, Winston's views change, and questions Ingsoc. Unknown to him, the Thought Police have been spying on him and Julia. Later, when approached by Inner Party member O'Brien, Winston believes that he's come into contact with The Brotherhood, opponents of the Party. O'Brien gives him a copy of "the book", The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism, a searing criticism of Ingsoc said to be written by the dissident Emmanuel Goldstein, the leader of the Brotherhood; it explains the perpetual war and exposes the truth behind the Party's slogan, "War is Peace; Freedom is Slavery; Ignorance is Strength."
The Thought Police capture Winston and Julia in their sanctuary bedroom and they are separately interrogated at the Ministry of Love, where the regime's opponents are tortured and killed, but sometimes released (to be executed at a later date); Charrington, the shop keeper who rented them the room reveals himself an officer of the Thought Police. In the Ministry of Love torture chamber, O'Brien tells Smith that he will be cured of his hatred for the Party. During a session, he explains to Winston that torture's purpose is to alter his way of thinking, not to extract a fake confession, adding that once cured accepting reality as the Party describes he then will be executed; electroshock torture will achieve that, continuing until O'Brien decides Winston is cured.
One night, a dreaming Winston suddenly wakes, yelling: "Julia! Julia! Julia, my love! Julia!" O'Brien rushes in and questions him, and then sends him to Room 101, the most feared room in the Ministry of Love. This is where a person's greatest fear is forced upon him or her for the final re-education step: acceptance. Winston, who has a primal fear of rats, is shown a wire cage filled with starving rats and told that it will be fitted over his head like a mask, so that when the cage door is opened, the rats will bore into his face until it is stripped to the bone. Just as the cage brushes his cheek, he shouts frantically: "Do it to Julia!" The torture ends, Winston is returned to society, brainwashed to accept Party doctrine.
After his release, Winston and Julia fortuitously meet in a park. With distaste, they remember the "bad" feelings they once shared; they acknowledge having betrayed each other; they are apathetic. Torture and re-education were successful; Winston happily reconciled to his impending execution, and accepting the Party line about the past and the present. In his mind, he celebrates the false fact of a news bulletin reporting Oceania's recent, decisive victory over Eurasia. Winston imagines himself back at the Ministry of Love. He imagines the scene he created during his imprisonment of walking down the white hallway and being shot by the guard. He finally accepts that he loves Big Brother.


Influence on the English language
Some of Nineteen Eighty-Four's lexicon has entered into the English language.
Orwell expounded on the importance of honest and clear language (and, conversely, on how misleading and vague language can be a tool of political manipulation) in his 1946 essay Politics and the English Language. The language of Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four is Newspeak: a thoroughly politicised and obfuscatory language designed to make independent thought impossible by limiting acceptable word choices.
Another phrase is 'Big Brother', or 'Big Brother is watching you'. Today, security cameras are often thought to be modern society's big brother. The current television reality show Big Brother carries that title because of Nineteen Eighty-Four.
The same novel spawned the title of another television series, Room 101.
The phrase 'thought police' is also derived from Nineteen Eighty-Four, and might be used to refer to any alleged violation of the right to the free expression of opinion. It is particularly used in contexts where free expression is proclaimed and expected to exist.
Doublethink is a Newspeak term from Nineteen Eighty-Four, and is the act of holding two contradictory beliefs simultaneously, fervently believing both.
Variations of the slogan "all animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others", from Animal Farm, are sometimes used to satirise situations where equality exists in theory and rhetoric but not in practice with various idioms. For example, an allegation that rich people are treated more leniently by the courts despite legal equality before the law might be summarised as "all criminals are equal, but some are more equal than others". This appears to echo the phrase Primus inter pares - the Latin for "First amongst equals", which is usually applied to the head of a democratic state.
Although the origins of the term are debatable, Orwell may have been the first to use the term cold war. He used it in an essay titled "You and the Atomic Bomb" on October 19, 1945 in Tribune, he wrote:
"We may be heading not for general breakdown but for an epoch as horribly stable as the slave empires of antiquity. James Burnham's theory has been much discussed, but few people have yet considered its ideological implications this is, the kind of world-view, the kind of beliefs, and the social structure that would probably prevail in a State which was at once unconquerable and in a permanent state of 'cold war' with its neighbours."

Literary influences
In an autobiographical sketch Orwell sent to the editors of Twentieth Century Authors in 1940, he wrote:
The writers I care about most and never grow tired of are: Shakespeare, Swift, Fielding, Dickens, Charles Reade, Flaubert and, among modern writers, James Joyce, T. S. Eliot and D. H. Lawrence. But I believe the modern writer who has influenced me most is Somerset Maugham, whom I admire immensely for his power of telling a story straightforwardly and without frills.
Elsewhere, Orwell strongly praised the works of Jack London, especially his book The Road. Orwell's investigation of poverty in The Road to Wigan Pier strongly resembles that of Jack London's The People of the Abyss, in which the American journalist disguises himself as an out-of-work sailor in order to investigate the lives of the poor in London.
In the essay "Politics vs. Literature: An Examination of Gulliver's Travels" (1946) he wrote: "If I had to make a list of six books which were to be preserved when all others were destroyed, I would certainly put Gulliver's Travels among them."
Other writers admired by Orwell included Ralph Waldo Emerson, G. K. Chesterton, George Gissing, Graham Greene, Herman Melville, Henry Miller, Tobias Smollett, Mark Twain, Joseph Conrad and Yevgeny Zamyatin. He was both an admirer and a critic of Rudyard Kipling, praising Kipling as a gifted writer and a "good bad poet" whose work is "spurious" and "morally insensitive and aesthetically disgusting," but undeniably seductive and able to speak to certain aspects of reality more effectively than more enlightened authors.
Orwell also publicly defended P. G. Wodehouse against charges of being a Nazi sympathiser; a defence based on Wodehouse's lack of interest in and ignorance of politics.

Predictably, the Special Branch in the UK, the police intelligence group, spied on Orwell during the greater part of his life. The dossier published by Britain's National Archives mentions that according to one investigator, Orwell's tendency of clothing himself "in Bohemian fashion," revealed that the author was "a Communist":
"This man has advanced Communist views, and several of his Indian friends say that they have often seen him at Communist meetings. He dresses in a bohemian fashion both at his office and in his leisure hours."
Conversely, there has been speculation about the extent of Orwell's links to Britain's secret service, MI5, and some have even claimed that he was in the service's employ. The evidence for this claim is contested.
Orwell also had an NKVD file due to his involvement with the POUM militia during the Spanish Civil War.


ORWELL, George
DoB: 25/6/1903 Time: 11:30 (+5:39 LMT) GMT Time: 05:50:20 by Astrodienst
Location: 84E55 26N39 Motihari-Bengalen (IND)
Category: Writer
Source: Miscellaneous data collections: 941101A

Rodden's AstroDatabank Rating: DD

Some doubts about Moon, Ascend, Midheaven

Using RIYAL 3.1

Astrological Setting (Tropical - Placidus)

      RIYAL  Thu June 25 1903  UT 5h50m20s  Lat26n39  Lon84e55   SORT ALL

      Planet      Longit.      Latit.    Declin.   Const.
      VU2      =  0Cp36 r    5n06   18s21    Sgr    
      QB1      =  0Sa42 r    1s59   22s15    Sco     
      OM67     =  1Sc21 r   21s44   32s08   Cen   
      PB112    =  1Sa23 r   14s19   34s26   Lup     
      GV9      =  1Ge37      3n16   23n42     Tau     
      MS4      =  1Vi47     15s30    3s40      Sex     
      RD215    =  1Sa55 r   15n10    5s41   Oph    
      XR190    =  2Ar01     44n56   41n08   Lac  
      MW12     =  2Vi12     10s54    0n30    Sex     
      Moon     =  2Ca18      4s56   18n30   Ori     
      Sun      =  2Ca30      0n00   23n26     Gem      
      EL61     =  3Ca19     13s29    9n56    Ori     
      Neptune  =  3Ca23      1s03   22n22   Gem    
      Chariklo =  3Pi24 r   13n01    1n54     Aqr     
      Pylenor  =   3Li33       4n12    2n27     Vir     
      RP120    =  4Sc08 r    5s28   18s02   Vir     
      Deucalion=  4Ca10      0n14   23n37   Gem    
      XX143    =  5Ta08      6s11    7n25      Cet    
      TY364    =  5Sa19 r   24n27    2n54    Oph     
      RN43     =   5Li22        0n22      1s47   Vir    
      KX14     =  5Ca44      0n03   23n23    Gem     
      Radamantu=  5Ar49      1s00    1n24   Cet    
      VR130    =  6Le00      2s43   16n09    Cnc     
      PJ30     =  6Le13      1s21   17n25      Cnc     
      Hylonome =  6Aq13 r    3n22   15s27   Cap     
      Huya     =  6Ge18     14s53    6n41     Tau    
      UX25     =  6Cp45 r   19n05    4s13    Sct    
      TX300    =  6Sc49 r   25s24   37s31   Cen    
      CR105    =  6Ar49     19s45   15s24   Cet   
      SQ73     =  7Sc31 r    7s51   21s25    Vir     
      Typhon   =  7Pi46 r    0s35     9s12     Aqr     
      WL7      =  7Pi49 r    5s28   13s43     Aqr    
      Pelion   =  8Cp06 r    4n45   18s27   Sgr    
      96PW     =  8Vi10      8n32   16n25   Leo    
      HB57     =  8Ca20     15s12    8n01   Mon   
      Saturn   =  8Aq20 r    0s34   18s44   Cap     
      Mars      =  8Li26       0s01     3s22   Vir      
      Chaos    =  8Aq40 r   12s01   29s40   Mic    
      VQ94     =  8Ar43     50s50   42s19   Phe    
      Sedna    =  9Ar18      8s36    4s14    Cet    
      Elatus   =  9Cp26 r    1s13   24s20   Sgr     
      GB32     = 10Ca06     13s38    9n28   Mon     
      Quaoar   = 10Le15      6s34   11n21   Cnc    
      RR43     = 10Sa56 r    7n11   14s59   Oph    
      Mercury  = 11Ge00      3s43   18n26   Tau      
      LE31     = 11Ar11 r   26s20   19s45    Cet     
      TO66     = 11Sc15 r   21s37   35s35   Cen     
      CO104    = 11Sc26 r    2s27   17s36   Lib     
      SB60     = 11Li50     23s58   26s34    Hya     
      FP185    = 12Ge03     29s30    7s01   Eri     
      Node     = 12Li21 r      0n00     4s53   Vir                                 
      RM43     = 13Cp01 r   10s33   33s18   Sgr    
      Amycus   = 13Aq01 r    0s38   17s32   Cap     
      CZ118    = 13Ca09     24n22   47n00   Lyn     
      TL66     = 13Cp28 r    22n33     0s19    Aql    
      AW197    = 13Ta29     23n12   37n49   And     
      RZ215    = 13Li38 r   14s59   19s09    Crv    
      OO67     = 13Sc44 r   20n03    3n13    Ser    
      BU48     = 14Sa09 r   12n17   10s18   Oph   
      XZ255    = 14Sa11 r    0n04   22s26   Oph     
      OX3      =  14Li33 r     3s04      8s34   Vir     
      Bienor   = 15Li41     14s43   19s42    Crv     
      UR163    = 15Sc49 r    0s44   17s16   Lib     
      RZ214    = 15Sc59 r    5n03   11s48   Lib     
      RL43     = 16Ge09     11s46   11n01   Ori    
      OP32    = 16Vi14      7s05    1s06      Leo     
      FZ173    = 16Ge16     12n08   34n49   Aur     
      CO1      = 16Ca36      9n39   31n59    Gem    
      CC22     = 16Ge42      9s41   13n09   Ori     
      Apogee   = 16Cp53 r    5n00   17s25   Sgr                                 
      SA278    = 16Aq55 r    9n00    7s11    Aqr     
      Venus    = 17Le17      1n46   17n21    Leo      
      PN34     = 17Ca37      2n53   25n09    Gem     
      Asbolus  = 17Le57     12n28   27n16   Leo     
      WN188    = 18Aq04 r    6s51   21s56   Cap    
      BL41      = 18Ar30      12n56    19n11    Psc      
      Teharonhi= 19Li27 r    2s32    9s57     Vir    
      Nessus   = 19Pi28 r   10s46   14s03   Aqr     
      Pluto    = 19Ge30      8s32   14n32     Ori     
      TC302    = 19Aq55 r   32s22   45s02   Gru  
      GM137    = 19Ge57      3s21   19n44   Tau      
      YQ179    = 20Ar10     20s48   11s24   Cet     
      Okyrhoe  = 20Ar32      5s50    2n37     Psc     
      CE10     = 20Vi59     18s31   13s25   Crt     
      Chiron   = 21Cp03 r    7n24   14s30   Sgr    
      Logos    = 21Ar09      2s41    5n46     Psc     
      QF6      = 21Sc16 r   26n50    7n53     Ser      
      QB243    = 21Ge21      6n10   29n19   Aur     
      AZ84     = 21Pi47 r   13n27    9n06     Peg    
      GZ32     = 22Sc05 r   12n28     6s14   Lib    
      Vertex   = 22Aq31                                                         
      Jupiter  = 22Pi44      1s13     4s00     Aqr      
      Uranus   = 23Sa16 r    0s09   23s25   Oph     
      VS2      = 23Sa30 r    9s23   32s39     Sco    
      Varuna   = 23Aq40 r   12s51   25s42   PsA     
      FZ53     = 23Sa42 r   32n55    9n35    Oph     
      RG33     = 23Le47     29n14   40n47   UMa     
      Ceto     = 23Pi51 r      1s02      3s23     Psc    
      Cyllarus = 24Le02     12n22   25n08   Leo     
      Eris     = 24Pi10 r     32s30    31s48    Scl     
      Pholus   = 24Le45     12n47   25n17   Leo      
      FY9      = 24Ta54     12s31     6n50    Tau    
      Midheav  = 25Ge08      0n00   23n22   Tau                                 
      Ascend   = 25Vi15      0n00    1n53    Vir                                 
      Thereus  = 25Ta32      9s09   10n15   Tau     
      GQ21     = 25Ge52     12s37   10n46   Ori    
      TD10     = 26Li07 r     2n20     7s54     Vir     
      Ixion    = 26Le20     18n58   30n27    LMi    
      PA44     = 26Ta21      1s09   18n13   Tau    
      UJ438    = 26Cp47 r    2n07   18s44   Sgr     
      KF77     = 27Pi02       1s25     2s28     Psc    
      DA62     = 27Pi09     41s44   38s43   Scl     
      DH5      = 27Vi21     10n00   10n14   Vir     
      Orcus    = 27Pi59     20n37   18n04   Peg   
      Echeclus = 28Li08 r    2n52    8s08   Vir     
      CY118    = 28Ta36     24s42    4s17   Eri     
      Crantor  = 29Ca12      0n58   21n17   Cnc     
      CF119    = 29Ar12     19n33   29n20   Psc     
      QD112    = 29Le46      6n30   17n38   Leo     
      XA255    = 29Pi54     12s10   11s12   Cet

Focused Minor Planets

EL61    =  3 Ca 19         (The Terror behind)
Sun      =  2 Ca 30
Moon   =  2 Ca 18
Neptune  =  3 Ca 23
Deucalion =  4 Ca 10

Venus   = 17 Le 17       Semisquare
Asbolus = 17 Le 57

XR190  =    2 Ar 01       T Square
Pylenor  =   3 Li 33

Chariklo =   3 Pi 24 r     Trine

RR43     =  10 Sa 56 r
Mercury = 11 Ge 00     
FP185   =  12 Ge 03

Quaoar =  10 Le 15      Trine

Node     =  12 Li 21 r     Sextile
SB60     =  11 Li 50

TO66     =  11 Sc 15 r    Semisextile

SA278    = 16 Aq 55 r
Venus    = 17 Le 17
Asbolus  = 17 Le 57

OP32     = 16 Vi 14       Quincunx

XR190    =   2 Ar 01       Semisquare

FZ173     = 16 Ge 16      Trine
Bienor     = 15 Li 41

RZ214     = 15 Sc 59 r    Square
UR163     = 15 Sc 49 r

Sedna    =  9 Ar 18
VQ94     =  8 Ar 43
Mars      =  8 Li 26

Saturn   =  8 Aq 20 r      Sextile
Chaos   =  8 Aq 40 r
Mercury  = 11 Ge 00

Quaoar  = 10 Le 15       Trine

FY9        =  24 Ta 54       Semisquare
Varuna  =  23 Aq 40 r

Elatus     =    9 Cp 26 r    T Square
HB57      =    8 Ca 20

Eris      =    24 Pi 10 r
Ceto     =    23 Pi 51 r
Jupiter =   22 Pi 44

Uranus =   23 Sa 16 r    Square
VS2       =   23 Sa 30 r

Chaos  =     8 Aq 40 r     Semisquare

Varuna =   23 Aq 40 r     Semisextile

Cyllarus =   24 Le 02       Quincunx
Pholus   =   24 Le 45

FY9       =   24 Ta 54        Sextile

TC302   =    19 Aq 55 r

Pluto     =    19 Ge 30      Trine
Teharonhi = 19 Li 27 r

UX25     =      6 Cp 45 r    Semisquare

Nessus  =    19 Pi 28 r     Semisextile

YQ179   =    20 Ar 10       Sextile
Okyrhoe =    20 Ar 32

Astrological Setting (Sidereal - Fagan/Bradley)

      RIYAL  Thu June 25 1903  UT 5h50m20s  Lat26n39  Lon84e55   SORT ALL       

      Planet       Longit.
      VS2      =  0Sa07 r   
      Varuna   =  0Aq16 r   
      FZ53     =  0Sa18 r   
      RG33     =  0Le23    
      Ceto     =  0Pi28 r    
      Cyllarus =  0Le39     
      Eris     =  0Pi47 r  
      Pholus   =  1Le22    
      FY9      =  1Ta30    
      Midheav  =  1Ge44                
      Ascend   =  1Vi52                  
      Thereus  =  2Ta08     
      GQ21     =  2Ge28    
      TD10     =  2Li43 r   
      Ixion    =  2Le56     
      PA44     =  2Ta57     
      UJ438    =  3Cp24 r    
      KF77     =  3Pi39      
      DA62     =  3Pi46    
      DH5      =  3Vi57     
      Orcus    =  4Pi36   
      Echeclus =  4Li44 r    
      CY118    =  5Ta12     
      Crantor  =  5Ca48   
      CF119    =  5Ar49     
      QD112    =  6Le22     
      XA255    =  6Pi31    
      VU2      =  7Sa13 r    
      QB1      =  7Sc18 r    
      OM67     =  7Li57 r   
      PB112    =  7Sc59 r  
      GV9      =  8Ta14      
      MS4      =  8Le24     
      RD215    =  8Sc32 r   
      XR190    =  8Pi38     
      MW12     =  8Le48     
      Moon     =  8Ge54     
      Sun      =  9Ge06         
      EL61     =  9Ge55     
      Neptune  =  9Ge59          
      Chariklo = 10Aq00 r   
      Pylenor  = 10Vi09      
      RP120    = 10Li44 r    
      Deucalion= 10Ge47      
      XX143    = 11Ar45      
      TY364    = 11Sc55 r   
      RN43     = 11Vi58     
      KX14     = 12Ge20      
      Radamantu= 12Pi25     
      VR130    = 12Ca36     
      PJ30     = 12Ca49      
      Hylonome = 12Cp50 r  
      Huya     = 12Ta55     
      UX25     = 13Sa21 r   
      TX300    = 13Li25 r   
      CR105    = 13Pi26    
      SQ73     = 14Li07 r   
      Typhon   = 14Aq22 r   
      WL7      = 14Aq25 r    
      Pelion   = 14Sa43 r    
      96PW     = 14Le46      
      HB57     = 14Ge56     
      Saturn   = 14Cp57 r    
      Mars     = 15Vi02    
      Chaos    = 15Cp17 r  
      VQ94     = 15Pi19     
      Sedna    = 15Pi55      
      Elatus   = 16Sa03 r    
      GB32     = 16Ge42     
      Quaoar   = 16Ca52      
      RR43     = 17Sc32 r    
      Mercury  = 17Ta37     
      LE31     = 17Pi47 r   
      TO66     = 17Li51 r   
      CO104    = 18Li02 r   
      SB60     = 18Vi26     
      FP185    = 18Ta39     
      Node     = 18Vi58 r                            
      RM43     = 19Sa38 r   
      Amycus   = 19Cp38 r    
      CZ118    = 19Ge45     
      TL66     = 20Sa05 r   
      AW197    = 20Ar05     
      RZ215    = 20Vi15 r   
      OO67     = 20Li20 r   
      BU48     = 20Sc46 r   
      XZ255    = 20Sc48 r   
      OX3      = 21Vi10 r    
      Bienor   = 22Vi18     
      UR163    = 22Li25 r    
      RZ214    = 22Li35 r    
      RL43     = 22Ta46     
      OP32     = 22Le50     
      FZ173    = 22Ta52     
      CO1      = 23Ge13      
      CC22     = 23Ta18      
      Apogee   = 23Sa29 r                               
      SA278    = 23Cp31 r    
      Venus    = 23Ca54            
      PN34     = 24Ge13      
      Asbolus  = 24Ca34     
      WN188    = 24Cp40 r   
      BL41     = 25Pi06    
      Teharonhi= 26Vi04 r    
      Nessus   = 26Aq04 r   
      Pluto    = 26Ta06      
      TC302    = 26Cp31 r
      GM137    = 26Ta34      
      YQ179    = 26Pi46     
      Okyrhoe  = 27Pi09     
      CE10     = 27Le35     
      Chiron   = 27Sa39 r    
      Logos    = 27Pi45      
      QF6      = 27Li52 r  
      QB243    = 27Ta57      
      AZ84     = 28Aq23 r   
      GZ32     = 28Li42 r   
      Vertex   = 29Cp06                                                         
      Jupiter  = 29Aq20           
      Uranus   = 29Sc53 r

Focused Minor Planets         

EL61    =   9 Ge 55
Sun      =   9 Ge 06
Moon   =   8 Ge 54
Neptune  =  9 Ge 59
Deucalion =  10 Ge 47

Venus   =  23 Ca 54      Semisquare
Asbolus =  24 Ca 34

XR190   =   8 Pi 38        T Square
Pylenor   = 10 Vi 09

Chariklo =  10 Aq 00 r   Trine

RR43     =  17 Sc 32 r
Mercury  = 17 Ta 37
FP185   =  18 Ta 39

Quaoar  = 16 Ca 52     Trine

Node      =  18 Vi 58 r    Sextile
SB60     =  18 Vi 26

TO66     =   17 Li 51 r    Semisextile

SA278    =  23 Cp 31 r
Venus    =  23 Ca 54
Asbolus  =  24 Ca 34

OP32     =  22 Le 50     Quincunx

XR190    =    8 Pi 38      Semisquare

FZ173     = 22 Ta 52      Trine
Bienor     = 22 Vi 18

RZ214    =  22 Li 35 r     Square
UR163    = 22 Li 25 r

Sedna    =  15 Pi 55
VQ94     =  15 Pi 19
Mars     =   15 Vi 02

Saturn  =   14 Cp 57 r    Sextile
Chaos  =   15 Cp 17 r
Mercury  =  17 Ta 37

Quaoar =   16 Ca 52      Trine

FY9        =     1 Ta 30       Semisquare
Varuna  =     0 Aq 16 r

Elatus     =  16 Sa 03 r     T Square
HB57      =  14 Ge 56

Eris       =     0 Pi 47 r
Ceto      =     0 Pi 28 r
Jupiter   =   29 Aq 20

Uranus  =   29 Sc 53 r   Square
VS2       =     0 Sa 07 r

Chaos  =   15 Cp 17 r    Semisquare

Varuna =     0 Aq 16 r    Semisextile

Cyllarus =     0 Le 39       Quincunx
Pholus   =     1 Le 22

FY9       =     1 Ta 30        Sextile

TC302  =    26 Cp 31 r

Pluto    =    26 Ta 06       Trine
Teharonhi = 26 Vi 04 r

UX25    =    13 Sa 21 r   Semisquare

Nessus  =   26 Aq 04 r   Semisextile

YQ179   =   26 Pi 46       Sextile
Okyrhoe =   27 Pi 09

Posted to Centaurs (YahooGroups) on July 12, 2008