Leo Sternbach



AW197/Sun conjunction/OO67 opposition


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Dr Leo Henryk Sternbach (May 7, 1908 – September 28, 2005) was a Polish-Jewish chemist who is credited with inventing the benzodiazepine, a class of tranquilizers.
He was born in Opatija, then in Austria-Hungary and now part of Croatia. He received his doctoral degree in organic chemistry from the Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland. He worked for Hoffmann-La Roche in Basel, Switzerland, which helped him to flee to the United States in 1941 to escape the Nazis. His work on drugs was done while working for Roche in Nutley, New Jersey.


Sternbach is credited with the invention of chlordiazepoxide (Librium), diazepam (Valium), flurazepam (Dalmane), nitrazepam (Mogadon), clonazepam (Klonopin), and trimethaphan (Arfonad).
Librium, based on the R0 6-690 compound discovered by Sternbach in 1956, was approved for use in 1960.

Structure:



3D Structure:



In 1963 its improved version, Valium, was released and became astonishingly popular: between 1969 and 1982 it was the most prescribed drug in America, with over 2.3 billion sold in peak year of 1978.

Structure:


3D Structure:


Sternbach held 241 patents, and his discoveries helped to turn Roche into a pharmaceutical industry giant. He didn't become wealthy from his discoveries but he was happy: he treated chemistry as a passion and said that "I always did just what I wanted to do". He went into the office until he was 95.

Sternbach was a longtime resident of Upper Montclair, New Jersey, from 1943 to 2003. He moved down south, and died at his new home in Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
A book "Good chemistry: The life and legacy of valium inventor Leo Sternbach" was published by McGraw-Hill in 2004.
The Rolling Stones paid tribute to Valium (the "little yellow pill") in their "Mother's Little Helper".

Legacy
He is present in the New Jersey Inventor's Hall of Fame; and was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 2005.<<

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leo_Sternbach

--------------------------

Mode of Action of Benzodiazepines

>>Benzodiazepines produce a variety of effects including:
· Anxiolytic (reduce anxiety)
· Anitconvulsant (used against epileptic seizures)
· Antispasmodic (muscle relaxant)
· Sedative/Hypnotic (“sleeping tablet” effect)
These effects result from Benzodiazepine’s modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter of the Central Nervous System (CNS), by influencing the GABAA receptor complex (Nutt & Malizia, 2001).
The GABAA receptor complex includes binding sites for benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and steroids. The chlorine ion channel is controlled by the GABA binding site. When the neurotransmitter GABA binds with the receptor it triggers a conformational change in the pore, allowing more Cl- to enter the cell (Nutt & Malizia, 2001). This results in a hyperpolarization of the cell membrane, consequently increasing the firing threshold and producing an inhibition of action potential firing. Upon binding, benzodiazepines lock the GABAA receptor into a conformation that increases the binding of GABA. Increased GABA binding increases the frequency of opening the associated Cl- channel, consequently amplifying the inhibitory effect (Cooper, Bloom, & Roth, 1996).

The GABAA receptor is composed of five protein subunits that ring a central chlorine ion channel. The majority of GABAA receptor subunits are alpha, ß, and gamma. Different isoforms of these main subunit types demonstrate different sensitivities to benzodiazepines. The most prevalent receptor is made up of alpha1, ß2, gamma2 subunits (Nutt & Malizia, 2001). GABA binds to the ß subunit and conventional benzodiazepines bind at the interface of the gamma2 subunit and any of the alpha1, alpha2, alpha3, or alpha5 subunits. Benzodiazepines with high affinity for the a1 subunit are associated with sedatives and those with affinity for alpha2 or alpha3 subunits demonstrate anti-anxiety activity. Receptors containing the alpha5 subunits may play a role in memory processes (Rowlett et al, 2006).


Action of Benzodiazepines at a synapse

GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter and GABA receptors are found throughout the Central Nervous System. Depending on the brain region, as many as tent to fifty percent of all central synapses possess GABAA receptors (Nutt & Malizia, 2001). Even though different combinations of receptor subtypes produce different reactions to different benzodiazepines, in general the action of benzodiazepines at a synapse is the same.
(1,2) Nerve impulse causes release of GABA from storage sites on neuron 1
(3) GABA released into the synaptic cleft
(4) GABA reacts with receptors on neuron 2; the reaction allows Cl- to enter the neuron
(5) This effect inhibits further progress of the nerve impulse
(6,7) Benzodiazepines react with GABAA receptor complex
(8) This action enhances the inhibitory effects of GABA; the ongoing nerve impulse may be completely blocked


Benzodiazepines were discovered in 1954 by Dr. Leo Sternbach, an Austrian chemist working for the pharmaceutical company Hoffmann-La Roche. La Roch laboratories submitted the drug for pharmacalogical evaluation in which they discovered its superiority to other related drugs (Schatzberg 2001). In 1959 the first Benzodiazepine was patented, and in 1960 it was introduced to the world as Librium (chlordiazepoxide).<<

http://nawrot.psych.ndsu.nodak.edu/Courses/465Projects06/Benzo/Index.htm

_______________________

Assuming noon, 11:00 UT,  in Opatija, Lat45n21 -  Lon14e19

Using RIYAL 3.1

Astrological Setting (Tropical - Placidus)




RIYAL  Thu May 7 1908  UT 11h00m00s  Lat45n21  Lon14e19   SORT ALL

Planet
Longitude
Latitude
Declin.
Const.
CY118
0Ge26
24s51
4s06
Eri
FY9
0Ge29
9s09  
11n18  
Tau
Varuna
0Pi53
13s52
24s04
Aqr
VS2
0Cp57 r
7s59  
31s26
Sgr
Cyllarus
1Vi00 r
12n27
22n43
Leo
LE31
1Li07 r
31n38
28n20
Com
CF119
1Ta12
19n27
30n00
Psc
Venus
1Ca31
3n36
27n02
Gem
Ixion
1Vi36 r
19n37
29n05
LMi
RG33
2Li05 r
11n13
9n27
Vir
XA255
2Ar46
12s10
10s03
Cet
XX143
3Ge13  
4s00
16n53
Tau
PB112
4Sa01 r
14s33
35s13
Lup
RP120
4Sc22 r
5s56
18s34
Vir
OM67
5Sc04 r
22s19
34s03
Cen
RD215
5Sa12 r
16n08
5s17
Oph
(Moon)
5Le26
2n31
21n21
Cnc
Jupiter
5Le43
0n46   
19n36
Cnc
Saturn
5Ar46
2s09
0n19
Cet  
GV9
6Ge10
1n03
22n23
Tau
Pylenor
6Sc12 r
5n47
8s08
Vir
FZ53
6Cp14 r
34n25
11n04
Oph
XR190
6Ar16
43n29
41n31   
And
Node
6Ca20
0n00
23n18
Gem
MW12
6Vi34 r
9s35
0n11
Sex
Pelion
6Aq34
0n29  
18s11
Cap
UJ438
7Aq08 r
2n32
16s02
Cap
SQ73
7Sa19 r
14s33
35s52
Sco
QB1
7Sa35 r  
2s04  
23s38
Oph
EL61
8Ca16
10s53
12n20
Gem
96PW
8Vi31 r
8n46
16n30
Leo
Deucalion
8Ca38
0n16
23n26
Gem
PJ30
8Le45
1s38
16n30
Cnc
MS4
8Vi50 r  
14s44   
5s24
Sex
VQ94
8Ar56
50s04
41s36
Phe
Orcus
9Ar13
19n44
21n42
Peg
Huya  
9Ge46
15s04
7n01
Ori
HB57
9Ca52
15s19
7n48
Mon
CR105
10Ar24
20s13
14s27
Cet
Sedna
10Ar26  
8s44
3s55
Cet
Typhon
10Pi36
0s27  
8s01
Aqr
KF77
11Ar15  
0s16
4n13
Psc
GB32
11Ca21
13s35
9n26  
Mon
KX14
11Ca50
0n00
22n56
Gem
RN43
11Li57 r
2n29
2s26
Vir
PA44
12Ge36
2s07
20n13
Tau
Neptune
12Ca37
0s47
22n04
Gem
BL41
12Ca51
1s25
21n25
Gem
Radamantus
12Ar52
0n43
5n45
Psc
UX25
12Cp54r
19n18
3s36
Aql
FP185
13Ge32
29s45
7s07
Eri
Chaos
14Aq03
11s59
28s03  
Mic
TY364
14Sa20r
23n23
0n43
Oph
CZ118
14Ca28
24n06
46n35
Lyn
TX300
15Sc20r  
26s15
41s16
Cen
OO67
15Sc24r
20n10
2n53
Ser
Quaoar
15Le37
6s12
10n13
Cnc
RM43
15Cp40r
11s30
33s57
Sgr
Apogee
15Le40 r
3n17
19n16
Cnc
XZ255
16Cp04r
1s11
23s40  
Sgr
RZ215
16Li06 r
15s52
20s55
Crv
Mercury
16Ta06      
0s04
16n36
Ari
Sun
16Ta28
0n00
16n46
Ari  
Midheav
16Ta40
0n00
16n50
Ari
TL66
16Cp44r
22n47
0n13
Aql
Uranus
16Cp48r
0s24
22s48
Sgr
AW197
17Ta11
22n31
38n23
And
RR43
17Sa13r
4n26
18s25
Oph
FZ173
17Ge49
12n16
35n06
Aur
Hylonome
18Aq14
2n43
12s47
Aqr
SA278
18Aq39
8n34
7s05
Aqr
CC22
18Li48 r
6n45
1s07
Vir
Vertex
18Cp58
Bienor
19Sc01r
21s04
37s36
Cen
RZ214
19Sc58r
6n14
11s44
Lib
Mars
20Ge06
1n00
24n04
Tau
OX3
20Li07 r
3s00
10s39
Vir
PN34
20Ca15
1n57
23n51
Gem
BU48
20Sa17r  
11n33
11s34
Ser
VU2
20Pi30
12n44
7n57
Peg
GZ32
20Sa51r
7n19
15s50
Ser
TO66
20Sc52r
24s05  
41s00
Cen
Pholus
20Li54 r
26n18
16n13
Boo
CO1  
21Le16
18n43
32n01
LMi
SB60
21Li19 r
23s55
30s17
Cen
YQ179
21Ar59
20s37
10s35
Cet  
Elatus
22Pi18
5s08
7s46
Aqr
OP32
22Vi20 r
4s17
0s54
Leo
VR130
22Le21
2s05
12n06
Leo
DA62
22Ar41
12s29
2s47
Cet
Thereus
23Ge00
16s46
6n31
Ori
Crantor
23Le00
6n37
20n05
Leo
Chiron  
23Aq09
6n25
7s44
Aqr
TC302
23Aq14
31s18
42s51
Gru
Pluto
23Ge25
7s16
16n02
Tau
QB243
23Ge35
6n03  
29n20
Aur
QD112
23Vi37 r
0n40
3n09
Vir  
Chariklo
23Pi43
18n12
14n11
Peg
Okyrhoe
24Ge16
13s52
9n29
Ori
Amycus
24Aq22
1n54
11s37
Cap  
UR163
24Sc27r  
0s42
19s34
Lib
DH5
25Li14 r
18n42
7n40
Vir
Ceto
25Pi14
1s36
3s22
Psc
(Ascend)
25Le29
0n00  
13n02
Leo
Eris
25Pi34
31s27
30s19
Scl
CE10
25Le38 r
4s50
8n26
Leo
Nessus
26Pi00
9s03
9s53   
Cet
Logos
26Ar28
2s45
7n39
Psc
Teharonhi
26Li40 r
2s37
12s44
Vir
Asbolus
27Le11 r
10n35
22n22
Leo
WN188
27Aq13
10s42
22s27
Aqr
TD10
27Li35 r
2n27
8s20
Vir
Echeclus
27Cp35
4n13
16s31
Sgr
GQ21
28Ge11
12s50
10n36
Ori
RL43
28Ge16
11s19
12n08
Ori
CO104
28Sc20r
2s54
22s38
Lib
QF6
28Ca54
5s51
14n40
Cnc
WL7
28Pi58
1s19
1s37
Psc
AZ84
29Pi08
12n45
11n21
Peg
GM137
29Le32
14n47
25n25
Leo

Focused Minor Planets


AW197    =  17 Ta 11
(complex assemblages - worldwide action- dynamic structures -
- social impact)
Sun         =  16 Ta 28
Mercury =  16 Ta 06
OO67      =  15 Sc 24 r
(times/ages marker - milestones)
TX300     =  15 Sc 20 r

Venus     =   1 Ca 31         Semisquare

Uranus  = 16 Cp 48 r      Trine
TL66       = 16 Cp 44 r
RM43      = 15 Cp 40 r
XZ255     = 16 Cp 04 r  

Quaoar   = 15 Le 37         T Square
SA278     = 18 Aq 39
Hylonome = 18 Aq 14     

RZ215     = 16 Li 06 r        Quincunx
RR43       = 17 Sa 13 r       

FZ173      = 17 Ge 49       Semisextile
___________________


Ixion      =   1 Vi 36 r
Cyllarus  =  1 Vi 00 r
Varuna  =  0 Pi 53

Venus    =  1 Ca 31         Sextile

VS2        =  0 Cp 57 r       Trine
CF119    =  1 Ta 12     

FY9         =  0 Ge 29         Square
___________________


SA278    =   18 Aq 39
Hylonome = 18 Aq 14

Mars       =   20 Ge 06      Trine
FZ173     =   17 Ge 49

RR43      =    17 Sa 13 r   Sextile
BU48      =    20 Sa 17 r

TO66      =    20 Sc 52 r    Square
AW197   =    17 Ta 11
___________________


GV9      =   6 Ge 10
SQ73     =   7 Sa 19 r
QB1       =   7 Sa 35 r

Jupiter  =   5 Le 43          Sextile
Saturn  =   5 Ar 46     
XR190   =   6 Ar 16

Pylenor  =   6 Sc 12 r       Quincunx

Node     =    6 Ca 20        Semisextile

MW12   =    6 Vi 34 r       Square

Pelion   =    6 Aq 34         Trine
___________________


UX25     =  12 Cp 54 r
Neptune  = 12 Ca 37
KX14     =  11 Ca 50
GB32     =  11 Ca 21

RN43     =  11 Li 57 r       Square
___________________


Chaos    =  14 Aq 03
Quaoar   = 15 Le 37

Neptune = 12 Ca 37      Quincunx

TY364     =  14 Sa 20 r    Sextile

OO67      =  15 Sc 24 r    Square
TX300     =  15 Sc 20 r
___________________


TC302    =    23 Aq 14
Chiron     =   23 Aq 09
Amycus   =   24 Aq 22
Crantor   =    23 Le 00

Pluto      =    23 Ge 25     Trine
Thereus  =    23 Ge 00
QB243    =    23 Ge 35
Okyrhoe  =    24 Ge 16

OP32     =     22 Vi 20 r    Quincunx

Chariklo =     23 Pi 43      Semisextile
____________________________
____________________________


Astrological Setting (Sidereal - Fagan/Bradley)

RIYAL  Thu May 7 1908  UT 11h00m00s  Lat45n21  Lon14e19   SORT ALL


Planet
Longitude
QB243      
0Ge08
QD112      
0Vi09 r
Chariklo   
0Pi15
Okyrhoe     
0Ge48
Amycus     
0Aq55
UR163      
0Sc59 r
DH5         
1Li47 r
Ceto      
1Pi47
(Ascend)       
2Le02
Eris      
2Pi07
CE10       
2Le11 r
Nessus     
2Pi33
Logos      
3Ar01
Teharonhi  
3Li13 r
Asbolus     
3Le44 r
WN188      
3Aq46
TD10        
4Li08 r
Echeclus   
4Cp08
GQ21       
4Ge44
RL43       
4Ge48
CO104      
4Sc53 r
QF6        
5Ca27
WL7        
5Pi31
AZ84       
5Pi41
GM137     
6Le05
CY118      
6Ta59
FY9        
7Ta02
Varuna     
7Aq26
VS2        
7Sa29 r
Cyllarus   
7Le32 r
LE31        
7Vi40 r
CF119      
7Ar45
Venus      
8Ge04
Ixion       
8Le08 r
RG33       
8Vi38 r
XA255      
9Pi18
XX143      
9Ta45
PB112      
10Sc33r
RP120     
10Li55 r
OM67        
11Li37 r
RD215      
11Sc45 r
(Moon)      
11Ca58
Jupiter  
12Ca15
Saturn    
12Pi19
GV9        
12Ta43
Pylenor   
12Li44 r
FZ53       
12Sa46r
XR190     
12Pi49
Node       
12Ge52
MW12      
13Le06 r
Pelion    
13Cp07
UJ438      
13Cp41r
SQ73       
13Sc51r
QB1        
14Sc08r
EL61      
14Ge48
96PW      
15Le04 r
Deucalion
15Ge11
PJ30        
15Ca18
MS4       
15Le22 r
VQ94      
15Pi28
Orcus     
15Pi46
Huya      
16Ta19
HB57      
16Ge24  
CR105     
16Pi57
Sedna     
16Pi58
Typhon    
17Aq09
KF77     
17Pi48
GB32      
17Ge54
KX14      
18Ge23
RN43      
18Vi29 r
PA44       
19Ta09
Neptune    
19Ge10
BL41      
19Ge24
Radamantus
19Pi24
UX25       
19Sa26r
FP185     
20Ta04
Chaos     
20Cp35
TY364      
20Sc53r
CZ118     
21Ge01
TX300      
21Li52 r
OO67       
21Li56 r
Quaoar   
22Ca10
RM43        
22Sa12r
Apogee     
22Ca13r
XZ255      
22Sa37r
RZ215     
22Vi39 r
Mercury   
22Ar39
Sun       
23Ar01
(Midheav)   
23Ar13
TL66       
23Sa17r
Uranus    
23Sa21r
AW197     
23Ar44
RR43       
23Sc46r
FZ173     
24Ta21
Hylonome  
24Cp46
SA278     
25Cp12
CC22      
25Vi21 r
Vertex    
25Sa31
Bienor    
25Li34 r
RZ214     
26Li30 r
Mars     
26Ta39
OX3       
26Vi40 r
PN34       
26Ge48
BU48       
26Sc49r
VU2       
27Aq03
GZ32       
27Sc24r
TO66       
27Li25 r
Pholus    
27Vi27 r
CO1        
27Ca49
SB60      
27Vi52 r
YQ179      
28Pi32
Elatus    
28Aq51
OP32      
28Le52 r
VR130     
28Ca53
DA62      
29Pi14
Thereus    
29Ta32
Crantor   
29Ca33
Chiron    
29Cp42
TC302     
29Cp47
Pluto     
29Ta58

Focused Minor Planets                                                                        


AW197    =   23 Ar 44  
Sun         =   23 Ar 01
Mercury  =  22 Ar 39
OO67       =  21 Li 56 r
TX300      =  21 Li 52 r

Venus      =    8 Ge 04        Semisquare

Uranus   =  23 Sa 21 r      Trine
TL66        =  23 Sa 17 r
RM43       =  22 Sa 12 r
XZ255      =  22 Sa 37 r

Quaoar    =  22 Ca 10        T Square
SA278      =  25 Cp 12
Hylonome =  24 Cp 46  

RZ215      =  22 Vi 39 r       Quincunx
RR43        =  23 Sc 46 r

FZ173      =  24 Ta 21         Semisextile
___________________


Ixion       =    8 Le 08 r
Cyllarus  =     7 Le 32 r
Varuna   =    7 Aq 26

Venus    =     8 Ge 04        Sextile

VS2        =     7 Sa 29 r      Trine
CF119    =     7 Ar 45   

FY9         =     7 Ta 02         Square
___________________


SA278    =   25 Cp 12
Hylonome = 24 Cp 46

Mars      =    26 Ta 39         Trine
FZ173    =    24 Ta 21

RR43     =     23 Sc 46 r     Sextile
BU48     =     26 Sc 49 r

TO66     =     27 Li 25 r      Square
AW197  =     23 Ar 44
___________________  


GV9     =   12 Ta 43
SQ73    =   13 Sc 51 r
QB1      =   14 Sc 08 r

Jupiter =   12 Ca 15        Sextile
Saturn  =   12 Pi 19   
XR190   =  12 Pi 49

Pylenor  =   12 Li 44 r      Quincunx

Node     =   12 Ge 52       Semisextile

MW12   =   13 Le 06 r      Square

Pelion    =   13 Cp 07       Trine
___________________


UX25     =   19 Sa 26 r
Neptune  = 19 Ge 10
KX14     =   18 Ge 23
GB32     =   17 Ge 54

RN43     =   18 Vi 29 r      Square
___________________


Chaos    =  20 Cp 35
Quaoar   =  22 Ca 10

Neptune  = 19 Ge 10     Quincunx

TY364    =   20 Sc 53 r    Sextile

OO67     =   21 Li 56 r     Square
TX300    =   21 Li 52 r
___________________


TC302    =  29 Cp 47
Chiron    =  29 Cp 42
Amycus  =    0 Aq 55
Crantor   = 29 Ca 33

Pluto      = 29 Ta 58         Trine
Thereus  = 29 Ta 32
QB243    =   0 Ge 08
Okyrhoe  =   0 Ge 48

OP32     =  28 Le 52 r     Quincunx

Chariklo =    0 Pi 15        Semisextile

_______________________________


Tentatively, additional keywords:

for 2002 AW197:

- Building New Complex Structures

for 2000 OO67:

- Modernisation of Ancient Methods

for Ixion:

- The Age of Anxiety
___________________________________

Posted to Centaurs (YahooGroups) on May 26, 2008

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